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Chapter 3 Program Management and Project Evaluation Professor Hossein Saiedian McGraw-Hill Education ISBN
Chapter Cost-Benefit Analysis Cost/benefit analysis, comparing –Expected costs –Expected benefits Issues –Estimating costs –Estimating benefits Use of financial models to evaluate For Exclusive Use of EECS811 Students Saiedian © 2007
Chapter Cost-Benefit Analysis Two Steps Identifying and estimating all of the costs and benefits of carrying out the project and operating the delivered application Expressing the costs and benefits in common units For Exclusive Use of EECS811 Students Saiedian © 2007
Chapter Cost-Benefit Analysis Cost Estimation Estimate costs to compare with benefits/other investment options Overall estimation based on –Estimation of required activities (structure) –Estimation for each activity –Estimation of installation/setup cost –Estimation of operational cost Difficult, as a lot of these are estimates; estimation errors cascade For Exclusive Use of EECS811 Students Saiedian © 2007
Chapter Cost-Benefit Analysis Cost Category Development costs Setup costs Operational costs For Exclusive Use of EECS811 Students Saiedian © 2007
Chapter Cost-Benefit Analysis Development Costs Salaries (base, incentives, and bonuses) Equipment for development –Hardware –Software For Exclusive Use of EECS811 Students Saiedian © 2007
Chapter Cost-Benefit Analysis Setup Cost Hardware and software infrastructure Recruitment/staff training Installation and conversion costs For Exclusive Use of EECS811 Students Saiedian © 2007
Chapter Cost-Benefit Analysis Operational Costs Costs of operating the system once it has been installed –Support costs –Hosting costs –Licensing costs –Maintenance costs –Backup costs For Exclusive Use of EECS811 Students Saiedian © 2007
Chapter Cost-Benefit Analysis Benefit Estimation Estimate benefits of new system based on –Estimation of cost savings and money generation when deployed –Value of information obtained for objective driven project –Value of intangibles In other words: direct, indirect and intangible benefits For Exclusive Use of EECS811 Students Saiedian © 2007
Chapter Cost Benefits Analysis Benefits Types Direct benefits Indirect benefits Intangible benefits For Exclusive Use of EECS811 Students Saiedian © 2007
Chapter Cost Benefits Analysis Direct Benefits Directly accountable to new system –Cost savings ( e.g., less staff, less paper, quicker turnaround) –Money generation (e.g., new revenue stream, new markets) Measurable after system is operational Have to be estimated for cost/benefit analysis For Exclusive Use of EECS811 Students Saiedian © 2007
Chapter Cost Benefits Analysis Indirect Benefits Secondary benefits of new system –Examples: Better work flow, increased flexibility Somewhat quantifiable after the system is operational Have to be estimated for cost/benefit analysis For Exclusive Use of EECS811 Students Saiedian © 2007
Chapter Cost Benefits Analysis Intangible Benefits Positive side effects of new system External (e.g., increase branding, entry to new markets) Internal (increased interest in job for users, enabler for other systems) Often very specific to a project; not measurable even after a system is operational For Exclusive Use of EECS811 Students Saiedian © 2007
Chapter Cash Flow Forecasting Indicates when expenditure and income will take place For Exclusive Use of EECS811 Students Saiedian © 2007
Chapter Cash Flow Forecasting Cash Flow Analysis Typically there are outgoing payments initially and then incoming payments There might be additional costs at the end of the project life Cash flow considerations –Is initial funding for the project available? –Is timing of incoming/outgoing cash flow in line with financial plans? Risky/expensive projects might be funded using venture capital For Exclusive Use of EECS811 Students Saiedian © 2007
Chapter Cash Flow Forecasting Example of Cash Flow Forecasts YearProject 1Project 2Project 3Project ,000-1,000, , , , ,000 30, , ,000 30, , ,000 30, , ,000 30, , ,000 30,000 75,000 Net profit 50, ,000 50,000 75,000 For Exclusive Use of EECS811 Students Saiedian © 2007 Net profit: the difference between total cost an the total income of the live of a project
Chapter Cost-Benefit Evaluation Techniques [1/2] Costs and benefits have to be expressed using the same scale to be comparable Usually expressed in payments at certain times (cash flow table) Payments at different points in time are not comparable based only on the dollar amount –Time of payment should be considered For Exclusive Use of EECS811 Students Saiedian © 2007
Chapter Cost-Benefit Evaluation Techniques [2/2] Techniques –Net profit –Payback period –Return on investment –Net present value –Internal rate of return For Exclusive Use of EECS811 Students Saiedian © 2007
Chapter Cost-Benefit Evaluation Techniques Net Profit Difference between total cost and total income Pros: Easy to calculate Cons –Does not show profit relative to size investment (e.g., consider Project 2) –Does not consider timing of payments (e.g., compare Projects 1 and 3; income comes late in Project 1) For Exclusive Use of EECS811 Students Saiedian © 2007
Chapter Cost-Benefit Evaluation Techniques Payback Period [1/3] Time taken to break even (pay back the initial investment) Pros –Easy to calculate –Gives some idea of cash flow impact Cons: Ignores overall profitability Not very useful by itself, but a good measure for cash flow impact For Exclusive Use of EECS811 Students Saiedian © 2007
Chapter Cost-Benefit Evaluation Techniques Payback Period [2/3] The Payback Period approach states that all projects with a Payback Period less than a specified number of years should be accepted For Exclusive Use of EECS811 Students Saiedian © 2007 Year Cash Flow Net Cash Flow
Chapter Cost-Benefit Evaluation Techniques Payback Period [3/3] The Payback Period approach states that all projects with a Payback Period less than a specified number of years should be accepted NCF: Net Cash Flow For Exclusive Use of EECS811 Students Saiedian © 2007
Payback Period Example A company is planning to undertake a project requiring initial investment of $50 million and is expected to generate $10 million in Year 1, $13 million in Year 2, $16 million in year 3, $19 million in Year 4 and $22 million in Year 5. Calculate the payback value of the project. For Exclusive Use of EECS811 Students Saiedian © 2007 Chapter 3-23
Chapter Cost-Benefit Evaluation Techniques Return On Investment [1/2] Also known as the accounting rate of return (ARR) Provides a way of comparing the net profitability to the required investment The common formula –ROI = (average annual profit/total investment) X 100 –For project 1: ROI = ((50,000/5)/100,000) x 100 = 10% –For project 4: ROI = ((75,000/5)/120,000) x 100 = 12.5% –For project 2: 2%; project 3: 10% For Exclusive Use of EECS811 Students Saiedian © 2007
Chapter Cost-Benefit Evaluation Techniques Return On Investment [2/2] Pros: Easy to calculate Cons –Does not consider the timing of payments –Misleading: does not consider bank interest rates For Exclusive Use of EECS811 Students Saiedian © 2007
Chapter Cost-Benefit Evaluation Techniques Net Present Value [1/5] A technique that takes into account the profitability of a project and the timing of the cash flows that are produced Sum of all incoming and outgoing payments, discounted using an interest rate Rationale: $100 is better now than next year For Exclusive Use of EECS811 Students Saiedian © 2007
Chapter Cost-Benefit Evaluation Techniques Net Present Value [2/5] Present value = (value in year t)/(1+r)^t –r is the discount rate (discounting the future value) –t is the number of years into the future that the cash flow occurs For Exclusive Use of EECS811 Students Saiedian © 2007
Chapter Cost-Benefit Evaluation Techniques Net Present Value [3/5] (1+r)^t is known as discount factor In the case of 10% rate and one year –Discount factor = 1/(1+0.10) = In the case of 10% rate and two years –Discount factor = 1/(1.10 x 1.10) = For Exclusive Use of EECS811 Students Saiedian © 2007
Chapter Cost-Benefit Evaluation Techniques Net Present Value [4/5] (Project 1) YearCash Flow Discount Factor (10%) Discounted Cash Flow 0-100, , , , , , , , , , ,090 Net Profit: 50,000 NPV: 618 For Exclusive Use of EECS811 Students Saiedian © 2007
Chapter Cost-Benefit Evaluation Techniques Net Present Value [5/5] Pros –Takes into account profitability –Considers timing of payments –Considers economic situation through discount rate Cons: Discount rate can be difficult to choose For Exclusive Use of EECS811 Students Saiedian © 2007
Chapter Cost-Benefit Evaluation Techniques Internal Rate of Return [3/4] Pros –Calculates figure which is easily comparable to interest rates Cons: Difficult to calculate (iterative) Standard way to compare projects For Exclusive Use of EECS811 Students Saiedian © 2007
Chapter Conclusions [1/2] Projects must be evaluated on strategic, technical and economic ground Many projects are not justifiable on their own, but as part of a broader program of projects that implement an organization’s strategy Not all benefits can be precisely quantified in financial values For Exclusive Use of EECS811 Students Saiedian © 2007
Chapter Conclusions [2/2] Cost-benefit analysis techniques and decision trees provide tools for evaluating expected outcomes and choosing between alternatives strategies For Exclusive Use of EECS811 Students Saiedian © 2007
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