Presentation on theme: "The New World. A t a time when the goal in European navigation was to find a route to the riches of the East the brave Italian cartographer and sailor."— Presentation transcript:
A t a time when the goal in European navigation was to find a route to the riches of the East the brave Italian cartographer and sailor Christopher Columbus had a bold idea. o Thinking the world was smaller than it is Columbus petitioned the King and Queen of Spain (after being turned down by Portugal) for funding for a journey westward. o The general consensus of the day was that the world was round yet no one knew how large it was. o After seven years of convincing, King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella finally agreed to fund half of the venture while the other half consisted of private investments. Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus Map Creation of empires and destruction of native peoples. SOL
Columbus and his ships made landfall on the island of San Salvador after 5 weeks of sailing. Christopher Columbus stops at the Canary Islands to re-supply his before setting sail out across the Atlantic. 39 men were left at a fort settlement after the Santa Maria was sunk on a reef. Rough seas on his return voyage forced Columbus to land in Lisbon.
o Columbus was praised as a hero when he returned to Spain a week after arriving in Europe. o He had abducted 25 natives to present to the king and queen of which only 6 survived. o Columbus would make three more voyages to the new world exploring the Island of the “West Indies” as well as southern North and Northern South America. o He died convinced that he had reached Asia. o Columbus’ management methods came under scrutiny in Spain several times during his expeditions, many people under his command complained of his tyrannical administrative techniques. o He was jailed for a time while waiting for a trial in Spain. o How did he interact with natives?
Amerigo Vespucci o Amerigo Vespucci was the son of a Florentine merchant who eventually moved to Spain. o In Spain he had the opportunity to sail on several expeditions to the “West Indies” (2-4). o During these trips Vespucci wrote of his encounters with the foreign land as he also mapped the stars at night. o The second expedition he participated in traveled down the eastern coast of South America reporting that the new lands to the west were much larger than previously thought. o Vespucci correctly hypothesized that Columbus had not reached Asia but instead “new world.” o His letters were highly publicized in Europe as one of the first accounts of the strange new lands to the west.
o A German map maker named Martin Waldseemuller is thought to have labeled the new continents in one of his atlases America, after Amerigo Vespucci. o The land to the north of Vespucci’s travels was deemed North America. o Not many true details are known about Vespucci’s part in his explorations, many letters he supposedly wrote have proven to be forgeries, one describes South America as being “populated by giants, cannibals, and sexually insatiable females “
o Hernando Cortez was one of several opportunistic conquistadors to travel to the New World in search of status and fortune. o Due to his commanding character and natural leadership abilities he eventually climbed to the position of Mayor of the capitol of Cuba. o His was appointed by the governor of Cuba to lead an expedition into Mexico to claim it for the Spanish crown. o Once in Mexico Cortez commanded a force of 600 men which began a march toward the Aztec capitol of Tenochtitlan. o Along the way Cortez gained allies among tribes which were subjugated by the Aztecs. Hernando Cortez Creation of empires and destruction of native peoples (Aztec Empire). SOL
o By the time Cortez had reached Tenochtitlan along with his 600 men 15 horsemen and 15 cannons he had amassed a native army of nearly 3000 men. o Once in the city Cortez took the Aztec leader Montezuma hostage realizing he could not take the capitol city with such a small force. o After a time the Aztec rose up in rebellion and Cortez was forced to retreat back to the coast with heavy losses. o After a year of preparation Cortez marched on Tenochtitlan again, this time with a larger force. o He took the small pox infested city after a lengthy siege and was later made governor of Mexico.
Artists Rendering of the Battle for Tenochtitlan
o Francisco Pizarro was inspired by stories of Cortez and Aztec riches to explore the lands south of Panama. o After a disastrous first expedition and a second which left him with only thirteen loyal followers Cortez had enough proof of a powerful rich empire in the mountains to launch a third expedition. o With a little more than 100 men and 62 horsemen Pizarro sought out a meeting with the Incan leader whom he captured after a rude refusal. o After executing the Incan leader Pizarro took the capitol of the Incan Empire Cuzco one year later. Francisco Pizarro Creation of empires and destruction of native peoples (Incan Empire). SOL
o Jacques Cartier was a French explorer who claimed Canada for his country. o During three known expeditions Cartier sailed down the St. Lawrence River making friends with the local Native American populations. o He was looking for a water route to Asia through North America (the northwest passage) and was convinced that if he could navigate the rapids of the St. Lawrence river he would reach the west. o On the third trip Cartier established a French settlement along the river and searched for the fabled “Kingdom of Saguenay.” o The natives would become less friendly as time wore on and the harsh winters were too much for the settlers to bear. o The settlement was eventually abandoned. Jacques Cartier Creation of empires and destruction of native peoples. SOL