Presentation on theme: "Europeans Reach the Americas"— Presentation transcript:
1 Europeans Reach the Americas Chapter 2, Section 2 Pages
2 Did You Know? An Italian mapmaker, Amerigo Vespucci, went to Brazil to help King Manuel I of Portugal determine how muchland Portugal had been given by the Treaty of Tordesillas.Vespucci made a map of South America and sold copiesto a German cartographer.Amerigo Vespucci’s name appeared on the map, givinghim credit. However, many people misunderstood andthought the land portion of the map was labeled“America.”
3 New Trade RoutesThe Portuguese were the leaders of early exploration. Theyhoped to find a new route to China and India. They also hopedto find a more direct way to get West African gold.Prince Henry of Portugal (also called Henry the Navigator) setup a center for exploration so that scientists could share theirknowledge with shipbuilders and sailors.Ships sailed south along the coast of West Africa (also calledthe Gold Coast) where they traded for gold and ivory and beganbuying slaves in the mid-1400’s.
4 Early ExplorersIn 1487 Bartholomeu Dias explored the southernmost part ofAfrica. This became known as the Cape of Good Hope. TheKing of Portugal hoped the passage around the tip of Africawould lead to a new route to India.In 1497 Vasco da Gama sailed around the Cape of Good Hope.He visited East African cities and reached India in 1498.
6 The VikingsThe Vikings reached North America and established settlementsin Iceland and Greenland in the 800’s and 900’s.Viking sailor, Leif Eriksson, explored land west of Greenlandknown as Vinland about the year 1000.Historians think that Vinland was North America. No one issure what other parts of North America the Vikings explored.
8 Columbus Crosses the Atlantic Queen Isabella of Spain sponsored Columbus on his firstvoyage in August 1492.He set out with three ships to find a route to Asia.On October 12, 1492, he spotted land, named it SanSalvador, and claimed it for Spain.He did not know that he had reached the Americas.He was convinced that he had reached the East Indies.
11 Columbus Crosses the Atlantic Columbus made three additional voyages in 1493, 1498,and 1502.He explored the Caribbean islands of Hispaniola, Cuba, andJamaica and sailed along the coasts of Central America andnorthern South America.He claimed these lands for Spain.
13 Treaty of TordesillasThe Treaty of Tordesillas was signed by Spain and Portugalto clarify the line of demarcations between their lands in theAmericas.The treaty moved the line farther west so that Portugalwould not be at a disadvantage.Spain was to have control of all the lands to the west ofthe line, and Portugal was to have control of all the landsto the east of the line.
14 Amerigo Vespucci Amerigo Vespucci mapped South America’s coastline in 1499.He concluded South America was a continent, but not partof Asia. European geographers called the continentAmerica, in honor of Amerigo Verspucci.
15 Other Spanish Explorers Vasco Nunez de Balboa claimed the Pacific Ocean and adjoining lands for Spain.Ferdinand Magellan, sailing from Spain in 1519, found a passageto the Pacific, the Strait of Magellan.Magellan sailed around South America and toward Spain.Magellan was killed in an island battle along the way, but a small number of his crew made it all the way to Spain. The crew became the first to circumnavigate the world.
16 Columbian ExchangeEuropean explorers and settler took plants and animals with them to the Americas.They also brought back a variety of new plants and animals to Europe, Asia, and Africa.The transfer became known as the Columbian Exchange because it started with Columbus’s explorations.