Presentation on theme: "We Who Built America: Working People,"— Presentation transcript:
1 We Who Built America: Working People, 1860-1890 Chapter 28We Who Built America:Working People,
2 A New Way of Life Industrial America Factories and technology Big businessmen lead growthLabor does the actual workWorking class grows faster than populationFactories and technologyLarger factories; fewer personal relationsMore dependence on machinesFewer skilled workersPoor pay, conditions
3 A New Way of Life (cont.’d) WagesActual wages declineReal wages riseSkilled workers make moreUnskilled workers often in povertyHoursGovernment employees: 8 hour daysSkilled workers: 10 hour daysUnskilled workers: 12+ hour daysFrequent layoffs due to business cycle
4 A New Way of Life (cont.’d) ConditionsLarge number of industrial accidentsLittle to no compensation when hurtCourts favor employersOccupational diseases not employer’s responsibility
5 Who Were the Workers? Workers Child labor Women workers Skilled workers: native-born white malesUnskilled workers: children, women, immigrantsChild labor1900: 1.8 million children work full timeChildren do all but heaviest jobsMany children in tenement sweatshopsChildren receive lower payWomen workersFirst industrial workers femaleHeavy labor favors male employeesWomen need wages for familiesWomen receive lower wages
6 Who Were the Workers? (cont.’d) Black workersMost industrial workers whiteAfrican Americans mainly in SouthAfrican Americans mainly on farmsAfrican Americans also servants
7 Organize! Need to organize Most workers accept conditions to keep jobs High absenteeismSometimes workers use sabotage
8 Organize!(cont.’d) History of Industrial violence Molly McGuires in coal minesPinkerton Detectives combat organizersViolent strikes common1877 railroad strike led to pitched battles1892 Homestead Strike led to siege1894 Pullman strike led to property destructionAmerican Railroad UnionEugene DebsUnions gaining strengthInitially just local trade unions1866: National Labor UnionNLU started by William SylvisFocuses on political action, fails
9 Organize! (cont.’d) Knights of Labor Terence Powderly Uriah P. Stephens starts organizationFirst a secret organization with Masonic undertonesWelcomes all workersMasonic undertones repel Irish Catholic workersTerence PowderlyNew leader of Knights of LaborDrops secrecy, Masonic undertonesKnights grows rapidly, has successful strikesHaymarket riot creates negative association; Knights fail
10 Organize! (cont.’d) Samuel Gompers and the AFL 1886: Gompers starts American Federation of LaborIncludes only skilled workersFocuses on basic issuesPrefers negotiations to strikesAFL continues to growEmployers still hostile to unionsBosses found counter-organizationA few accept the reality of unions
11 Nation of Immigrants Immigration Birth pains of a world economy Always a part of U.S.Grows in late 19th centuryMore from Southern Europe, AsiaIndustrialists need laborersPay fares in return for labor contractsImmigrants tend to be cheap, docile workersImmigrants asset to growing economyBirth pains of a world economyIndustrialization causes population growthCannot compete with cheap American foodLeads many to immigrate to AmericaPromoting immigrationAdvertisingMostly men and often temporary
12 Old Immigrants The Irish Chinese immigration begins with Gold Rush Immigration continues from British IslesIrish Catholics often suffer discriminationIrish Catholics quickly adaptIrish Catholics become formidable political forceChinese immigration begins with Gold RushChinese keep to themselvesChinese labor needed to build railroads, etc.Economy takes downward turnAmerican blame joblessness on ChineseDenis Kearney leads anti-Chinese movementCongress passes Chinese Exclusion Act 1882
13 Old Immigrants (cont.’d) Germans come for political reasonsMore Americans have German ancestry than EnglishHave money to set up farmsBring their culture to new worldScandinaviansAlso farmersNorthern Europeans prosper in New WorldAdapt quicklyBring their own culture
14 Old Immigrants (cont.’d) Sephardic and German JewsSmall groups present little threatQuickly adapt to American lifeReform JudaismOften successful businessmenCling to their religious heritageNew Jewish immigrationPost-1880 immigrants tend to be poor, illiterate, peasantsOrthodoxFast pogroms in Russia and Eastern EuropeLittle in past life prepares them for industrial, urban U.S.
15 Discussion QuestionsWhat were conditions of the workers like in the late industrial period of the 1800s?How were conditions different for women and child workers in industry in this period?Who were Terrance Powderly and Samuel Gompers? Why did the Knights of Labor fail, while the AFL succeeded?Examine immigration into the United States during the industrial period. Why were some immigrants able to eventually thrive, while others faced a constant struggle?