2 Essential Question:How did the rise of labor unions shape relations among workers, big business, and government?Terms and People:AFLCollective bargainingCompany townEugene V. DebsHaymarket RiotHomestead StrikeKnights of LaborPullman StrikeSweatshopSamuel GompersSocialismTerence v. Powderly
3 Typical Day in a Factory 12 hour days6 days per weekSmall, hot, dark and dirty sweatshopsOwners ensured productivity by strictly regulating hours – lunches, breaksWorkers paid fines for breaking rules or working too slowlyNoisy machines – workers lost hearingFaulty equipment/lack of training = tons of accidents
4 Child LaborWorkers were paid very little; parents brought children to work to keep them off the streets and to earn a small wage.Late 1800s - one in five children between 10 and 16 worked in a factory rather than attending school!1890s – Social Workers push to get children out of factories; states begin passing child labor laws.
5 HC Frick Coke Company Town, Shoaf, PA Business owner rents houses to laborers.Laborers forced to shop at company owned store.Sold on credit; high interest!Forced into wage slaveryHC Frick Coke Company Town, Shoaf, PA
6 Think about it… What were working conditions like? How did working conditions affect families?
7 Early Labor ProtestsCollective Bargaining – Negotiating as a group for higher wages or better working conditions.First national labor union was founded in 1834 – National Trades Union, open to workers from all trades. Only lasted a few years.Successfully negotiated slightly shorter work days in New England – 10 hour workday became standard.
8 What is Socialism?Economic and political philosophy that favors public, instead of private, control of property and income. Wealth should be distributed equally to everyone.This idea spread through Europe in the 1830s.Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, Communist Manifesto, denounced capitalism and predicted workers would overturn it.
9 Knights of Labor (1869) Founded by Uriah Smith Included workers from all tradesActively recruited African AmericansSecret society devoted to broad social changeSought to replace capitalism with workers cooperativesUriah Smith StephensKnights of Labor Seal
10 The Knight’s Constitution “The recent alarming development and aggression of aggregated wealth, which, unless checked, will inevitably lead to the pauperization and hopeless degradation of the toiling masses, render it imperative, if we desire to enjoy the blessings of life, that a check should be placed upon its power…and a system adopted which will secure to the laborer the fruits of his toil.”-Preamble to Knight’s Constitution, 1878
11 Knights of Labor Expands… Began leading the Knights of Labor in 1881.Moved the secretive Knights of Labor into the mainstream; focused on wide social change.By 1885, Membership grew to over 700,000 men and women nationwide.Organization died out during the 1890s due to several failed strikes.Terence V. Powderly
12 American Federation of Labor Formed by Samuel Gompers in 1886.Focused on specific workers’ issues: wages, working hours and conditions.Charged high membership fees and created a strike and pension fund for workers in need.Opposed women members because Gompers thought their presence in workplace would drive wages downAfrican Americans were usually excluded.Samuel Gompers, 1902
13 How were these two labor unions different? Think About It…How were these two labor unions different?
14 Major Strikes of the Late 1800s CauseEffectRailroad Strike, 1877Response to cuts in workers’ wagesSet the scene for violent strikes to comeHaymarket Square, 1886Part of a campaign to achieve an eight-hour workdayAmericans became wary of labor unions; the Knights of Labor were blamed for the riot and membership declinedHomestead Strike, 1892Economic depression led to cuts in steelworkers’ wagesAfter losing the standoff, steelworker unions lost power throughout the countryPullman Strike, 1893Wages cut without a decrease in the cost of living in the company townEmployers used the courts to limit the influence of unions
15 Eugene V. DebsThe son of poor immigrants, eventually worked his way up to become the head of the American Railway Union.Imprisoned for his role in the Pullman Strike; read the works of Karl Marx and eventually became a socialist.Ran for President five times between 1900 and 1920 on the Socialist Party ticket.Pacifist who opposed US participation in World War I.Imprisoned for opposing the government; received one million votes in the 1920 election while in prison!Eugene V. Debs
16 Effects of the Labor Movement Employers appealed frequently for court orders against unions and the government approved the appeals; denying unions recognition as legally protected organizations.Government severely limited union power for 30+ years.Industrialists, workers and government agencies battled over labor issues during the start of the 20th century.Strikes, contract negotiations, and legislation very common.Debs – Socialist Party – Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) – Violent protests – What until you see what happens next…
17 Try to use at least 8 of the terms! Free Write:In your notebooks (I will look for it during the Notebook check!!), please write two concise paragraphs discussing the relationship between the following terms:AFLCollective bargainingCompany townEugene V. DebsHaymarket RiotHomestead StrikeKnights of LaborPullman StrikeSweatshopSamuel GompersSocialismTerence v. PowderlyTry to use at least 8 of the terms!Circle the key terms!!