Presentation on theme: "THE ALBANIA MINE ACTION PROGRAMME “ALBANIA FREE FROM THE EFFECT OF MINES AND UXO BY 2005”"— Presentation transcript:
THE ALBANIA MINE ACTION PROGRAMME “ALBANIA FREE FROM THE EFFECT OF MINES AND UXO BY 2005”
MINE CONTAMINATED AREAS The threat emanates from the Kosovo conflict: 120 km border 57 identified areas 15,250,000 m2 The Threat: AP and AT mines laid by fRY forces UXO and sub-munitions, including NATO No records of minefields available to Albania None of this has been caused by Albania, AAF were requested by NATO not to get involved in the conflict
SOCIO- ECONOMIC IMPACT The population of the Kukes prefecture, almost 120,000 of which 75% are rural, are the poorest in Albania, if not in Europe 39 villages directly affected Average size of farms are 1.5 ha Main activities are: grazing, farming, gathering firewood, and other subsistence livelihoods. Land pressure is exacerbated by 75% mountainous terrain and mines 27 people killed and 216 injured
SECURITY IMPACT 13 police officers have already been wounded or killed by mines and UXO in the execution of their duties. Patrolling is almost impossible as it takes 1 to 2 hours to respond to a border incident due to mines and unexploded ordnance contamination. This is a weak point regarding integrated border management in SEE The criminals have identified and cleared lanes through minefields, through which they pass unfettered to and from Kosovo, while police can not respond effectively A grave consequence of the mines is the added difficulty of patrolling the Albania/Kosovo border, where trafficking, and other crimes, take place on a cross-border basis:
ALBANIAN RESPONSE Surface clearance, which drastically reduced civilian casualties (no areas certified cleared to humanitarian standards though) Level 1 Survey, total border area indicated to be contaminated – had to be redone employing impact survey methodology Ratification of all relevant international treaties Adoption of international humanitarian mine action standards Establishment of a national humanitarian mine action structure: AMAC and AMAE Advocacy for demining and funding by ICRC
POLICY, STRATEGY AND ADVOCACY – PROGRESS 2002 & PLANNING 2003 Progress 2002: National work shop June 2002, formulating vision, mission, priorities and 3-yr plan: Vision - Albania free from mines and unexploded ordnance by 2010 Mission - Develop and implement a sustainable mine action programme in order to eliminate the effect of mines and unexploded ordnance in North- east Albania by 2005 Drafted MA Law Stockpile Destruction Programme concluded, last APM of 1,683,860, was demilitarised on 4 April 2002 Planning 2003: Regularise activities of AMAC Ratification of MA Law, MA plan and priorities Formulation and ratification of comprehensive MA Policy Pass legislation in terms of Ottawa Treaty Art 9 Obligations ito Art 5 (1) to be achieved by 2010
CAPACITY BUILDING – PROGRESS 2002 UNDP 2-year capacity building programme commenced April 2002, funded for 1 yr by UNDP and DFID Assisted AMAC with policy, strategy, legal structure and priorities of MA Facilitated National Mine Action Planning Established regional office with EU and ITF assistance Established fully functional AMAE, including an integral QM Section Drafted AMAE Tech & Safety Standards Resource mobilisation
CAPACITY BUILDING – PLANNING 2003 Appointment of Swiss in-kind Ops Advisor, May 2003 Evaluate and revise TSS’s Optimise Ops/IMSMA integration In-service training of QM Team Assist AMAE with Impact Survey, Tech Survey, clearance and training standards Assist with QC tasks Capacity building of AAF for humanitarian demining Management trg of AMAE staff, incl middle management trg, exchange and study tours Assist with resource mobilisation
DEMINING – PROGRESS 2002 DCA-ACT and FSD deployed for demining, mostly with EU, ITF and German funding. ICRC and ARC assisted actively in creating an atmosphere conducive to demining. Most impact surveys accurately redone and technical surveys initiated, by end of 2002, with internal resources. With increased coordination and more efficient utilisation of demining assets, more than 7,000,000 m2 of formerly contaminated land released through survey and clearance during 2002.
IMSMA – PROGRESS 2002 & PLANNING 2003 Progress 2002: Fully functional IMSMA Cell and database established with ITF support Database populated up to date Albania maps georeferenced with EU and ITF support Planning 2003: Full integration of Ops/IMSMA Appointment of IT Chief and database management training Implement IMSMA TSS Convert to IMSMA Vers 3 and Albanian format
MINE AWARENESS - PROGRESS 2002 AND PLANNING 2003 Most communities reached, but people were still dying Strategy revised in the fall of 2002 Target groups readjusted: focus on economically active group 15-30 and remote villages Raise awareness of MA problem nationally and internationally Integrated structure: AMAE – Coordination UNICEF – Standards and funding ICRC – Advocating and funding ARC – Focal point and facilitating VMA (LNGO) – Manage grassroots liaison MCO’s – Limited implementation AMC’s – Grassroots community liaison, implementation
VICTIM ASSISTANCE - PROGRESS Tirana Orthopaedic Centre upgraded and operated by Government with EU and HI support 10 Prostheses technicians trained with Italian and ITF support 147 victims treated and prostheses fitted in Albania with ICRC assistance 62 victims received advanced treatment and fitment of prostheses at Slovenian Rehabilitation Institute with ITF assistance 12 victims assisted by ICRC to set up small enterprises Several laws now afford the disabled special privileges Monthly disability pension recently increased
VICTIM ASSISTANCE - PLANNING Implement victim assistance strategy Treatment of 30 Pri 1 and 3 sight impaired victims p/a abroad for 3 yrs Provision of raw materials to Tirana Orthopedic Centre Training of 3 doctors from NE Albania in advanced surgical procedures over 3 yrs Improving surgical facilities in NE Albania Training of 6 orthopedic technicians Treatment of 50 Pri 2 victims in Albania p/a Micro-finance to assist with reintegration of victims Sustainable Albanian victim assistance capacity by 2005 BUDGET P/A Treatment of victimsUSD160,000 Capacity buildingUSD40,000 Reintegration of victimsUSD50,000
TRANSITION STRATEGY Government responsibility to be phased in by 2004-2005 After 2005 – much reduced MA programme: Leaner structure Only low impact areas left to demine Albanian capacity for demining and victim assistance fully established Mine awareness objectives mostly reached Solid resource mobilisation base established
FUNDING Previous and current donors include UNDP, EU, DFID, ITF, Canadian, Danish, German, Swiss and US Governments. Total budget 2002 $ EU adopted resolution to fund MA in Albania “as far as possible” from CARDS programme. Of the $4,74m budget for 2003, $1.556m has already been funded, leaving a shortfall of $3.254m. Albania received promising indications of further EU and ITF funding. BUDGETSHORTFALL Capacity buildingUSD420,000USD150,000 (ITF 150 k pledge) Demining (technical survey and clearance) USD4,000,000USD2,600,000 (EU pledge) Mine awareness and victim assistanceUSD320,000USD305,000 (UNICEF 70k, ITF 235k pledge
CONCLUSIONS There is a significant mines and UXO threat in NE Albania There is increased awareness and commitment to solve problem 2002 was the turning point for the Albania MA program 2003 is a crucial year for the program The focus will be on: Accurately determining the extent of the mines and UXO problem (TS) Initiating the transition strategy Albania can set the pace in the region on issues such as stockpile destruction Albania can be rendered free from the effect of mines and UXO by 2005 with a reasonable budget.
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