Presentation on theme: "Integrated household based agricultural survey methodology applied in Ethiopia, new developments and comments on the Integrated survey frame work."— Presentation transcript:
Integrated household based agricultural survey methodology applied in Ethiopia, new developments and comments on the Integrated survey frame work.
Out line National Integrated Household Survey Program in Ethiopia Agriculture Census Population Census Area Frame Small Area Estimation GPS measurements and size of plot for crop cutting Land cover classification National Statistical Development Strategy (NSDS) The integrated survey frame work and comments
National Integrated Household Survey Program The National Integrated Household Survey Program (NIHSP) enables a national statistical office to run a number of annual national socio economic and demographic surveys using the office’s available infrastructure, field staffs (enumerators, supervisors, drivers …. etc), logistic support, data processing facilities …etc. Realizing the cost effectiveness of such survey program based on permanent statistical infrastructure, and to provide socio economic and demographic data in an integrated form on a continuous basis the national integrated household survey program (NIHSP) was initiated by Central Statistical Office (CSO) in 1980 with the assistance of FAO/UNDP and UNICEF.
National Integrated Household Survey Program Considering that the countries economy is based on agriculture and recognizing that improvement of agriculture statistics is important for efficient formulation and assessment of socio economic policies, the Rural Integrated Household Survey Program (RIHSP) was designed as part of NIHSP. The NIHSP includes different socio economic and demographic survey such as agriculture, labor force, household income, consumption and expenditure, welfare monitoring… etc.
National Integrated Household Survey Program The NIHSP maintains a flow of coordinated and integrated statistical information that is needed for formulating, implementing, monitoring and evaluating development plans. The current agriculture crop surveys which is part of the Rural Integrated Household Survey Program (RIHSP) includes crop forecasting, area and production of crops in meher and belg seasons, farm management practice, land utilization and livestock.
National Integrated Household Survey Program The sample design in the NIHSP is stratified cluster sample design where stratas are zones and clusters are EAs. Two/three stage design is used where PSU’s are EAs and SSU’s are households. Data on all topics in the integrated survey program are collected from the same PSUs.
Frame – The population and housing census is used as frame for NIHSP. This frame is list of enumeration areas (EAs) delineated during population and housing census cartographic work. These EAs are geo referenced. For sample selection in the PSU’s probability proportional to size (PPS), size being the number of households in the EAs, is used. – Initially 500 primary sampling units were covered. Now the primary sampling units gradually increased to 2290 PSUs.
Agriculture Census – The first National Agricultural Sample Census (NASCE) was conducted in 2001 by CSA. The NASCE was conducted on a sample basis with high sampling rate. As part of agricultural census, livestock census in pastoral areas was conducted. – The agricultural census was used as master frame for the integrated agricultural surveys conducted after agricultural census until the 2007 population census.
Population Census The recent population and housing census was conducted in 2007. This census is used as a frame for National Integrated Household Surveys conducted after the census. This frame is list of enumeration areas delineated during the population census cartographic work. The enumeration areas are geo referenced. In the recent census (2007), in addition to number of households and population with in EA, additional agricultural and health information which will help for further stratification in agricultural surveys are collected through the community questionnaire.
Population Census The basic information collected in community questionnaire are ; types of crops grown in that area in different seasons, irrigation data, disease prevalence in the area, agro ecological zone of the area and information about availability of root crops, spices and special crops in the EAs.
Area Frame CSA Ethiopia has been using and still uses list frame approach to collect agricultural data. That is list of EA’s are used as PSU’s and list of HHs as SSU. But the work load in the list frame approach has an impact on the quality of data. In addition, using number of households for estimation of agricultural data some times may not be relevant. To see the feasibility of area frame and to compare the result with that of list frame and to come up with justifiable conclusion, CSA conducted pilot survey in one zone and collected agricultural data based on area frame approach.
Results and concerns in area frame Work load reduced and time saved in area frame compared to list frame GPS is compulsory to delineate the boundary for a segment. This is not the case in list frame The percentage difference in the area estimate covered by different crops between list frame and area frame was high Even though significant gain in precision was expected from area frame, that is not attained in the pilot that was conducted in 2008. The investigation will continue in 2009 with a large sample.
Results and concerns in area frame From the three different approaches, namely; closed, open and weighted, there may be a need to clearly identify the better one for agricultural survey How to collect data for livestock in area frame approach is also the other issue which needs to be considered Appropriateness of collecting socio economic and demographic data based on area frame approach is also a concern.
Small Area Estimation In the normal agricultural survey, CSA reports data at zone level. In the current federal system of administration, policies are designed at wereda (district) level. CSA generated wereda level data only during the 2001 sample agricultural census. Now CSA is trying to generate small area (wereda level) data for agriculture using small area model. Three different types of data are used as an input for the small area model. They are data from the 2001 agricultural census, wereda level data from the ministry of agriculture and the direct estimates from the annual agricultural survey. Different evaluations are being conducted to evaluate the result and this activity will also continue to improve the result.
GPS measurements and size of plot for crop cutting Side by side to the pilot survey for area frame, data on cultivated area of land was collected on two different methods. These are the usual compass rope method and the other is using GPS. The result of the two methods was not significantly different. So, now CSA is planning to use GPS for area measurement starting from next year in one big region.
GPS measurements and size of plot for crop cutting In the same way data for crop cutting yield was collected on two different sizes. i. e from a plot of size 2 X2 and 4X4. The purpose of this was to reduce work load in crop cutting by reducing the size of plot, if the result is not significantly different. The result is analyzed. By looking at the result and other countries experience, CSA decided to use 2 X 2 size for crop cutting for next year.
Land cover classification CSA in collaboration with Mapping Agency, Information Net work Security Agency (INSA) and Ministry of Agriculture are working on land cover classification. This activity is funded by EC and technically supported by FAO. In addition to the major out put of producing land cover information for the country, the land cover classification will also help to refine the strata’s in the area frame.
National Statistical Development Strategy (NSDS) The National Statistical Development Strategy (NSDS) is designed in 2008/2009 and the National Statistical Council has been established to over see the implementation of the NSDS. The NSDS document has been endorsed by the council. The NSDS has given due emphasis to improve agricultural and environmental statistics. The importance of statistical coordination and capacity building in the national statistics system is also emphasized in the NSDS.
The integrated survey frame work The integrated survey frame work will create continuous flow of data and is cost effective. It will also make the data collected by different organizations more accessible, open and valuable. In Ethiopia, National Integrated Household Survey program has been used since 1980. The frame built from the recent 2007 population and housing census is used as master frame for sample surveys in NIHSP. The EA’s in this frame are geo referenced. These geo referenced EAs are also used to build area frame.
The integrated survey frame work Data from administrative records, agricultural business and community surveys are not coordinated but are located in dispersed manner. If this data is compiled to produce the necessary out put, it will minimize the data gap. The role of the statistical coordination in the NSDS is crucial to implement the integrated survey frame work. Generally the idea of using the Integrated Survey Frame Work is very important to facilitate the organization, manageability and sustainability of statistical activities, to compare and relate data generated, to increase the accessibility and value of available data, to minimize data gap and to save cost.