Presentation on theme: "Chapter 27 Notes AP World History. Imperialism ► “The policy of a state aiming at establishing control beyond its borders over people generally unwilling."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 27 Notes AP World History
Imperialism ► “The policy of a state aiming at establishing control beyond its borders over people generally unwilling to accept such control.” ► Encyclopedia Britannica
I. The New Imperialism: Methods and Motives ► The New Imperialism was a tremendous explosion of territorial conquest in which the imperial powers used economic and technological means to reorganize dependent regions and bring them into the world economy
“I unhesitatingly assert-and all unprejudiced travellers will agree with me-that the world still wants the black hand. Enormous tropical regions yet await the clearing and draining operations by the lower races, which will fit them to become the dwelling-places of civilized man.”
► B. Political Motives ► One political motive for imperialism was the desire to gain national prestige. ► The actions of colonial governors also led to the acquisition of new colonial possessions.
Darwin's Theory of Evolution
Naturalistic Evolution: Man has developed over millions of years from less advanced forms of life. God had no part in this process. Creationist view: God created man pretty much in his present form at one time within the last 10,000 years Theistic evolution: Man has developed over millions of years from less advanced forms of life, but God guided this process, including man's creation. 47% 40% 9%
1. Lack of knowledge on age of Earth 2. The Concept of speciation 3. Lack of scientific method 4. Notion of separate creation for humans and animals Four Factors that limited the development of theory of evolution
Natural Theology: ► He saw the adaptation of organisms to their environment as evidence that the creator had designed each and every species for a particular purpose ► (based on Judeo-Christian culture)
DARWIN ► Darwin trained to be a clergyman ► Beetlemania turned him into a naturalist ► Lyell and Hutton made him rethink the age of the Earth ► Got a position as the Naturalist on a 5 year voyage
Beagle Voyage ( ) Naturalist aboard the Beagle Collected plant & Animal specimens Took Lyell’s Book on Geology with him Visited many places including Galapagos
500 miles off coast of South America New Volcanic Islands Organisms migrated to Islands
Developed idea’s on Evolution after the voyage. Didn’t recognize what he was seeing Finches and Tortoises
DARWIN After the Voyage ► Darwin developed his theory of Natural Selection ► What inspired him? Hutton – Gradualism (The belief in gradual, often slow stages) Lyell - Earth is Old Farmers/Animal Breeder - Variation in populations Malthus - Populations grow rapidily - Not enough resources for all offspring - Not enough resources for all offspring
All populations have variation Darwin knew many farmers and animal breeders. From them and his own research he knew all individuals in a population are different.
In nature, animals and plants produce more offspring than can survive. This leads to a struggle for existence. DARWIN reads Malthus 1838 In 1838, Darwin reads for amusement Malthus’s book Population. Darwin see that favorable variations in a population would tend to be preserved, and unfavorable ones to be destroyed. He at last has a theory by which to work.
Darwin publishes the Origin of Species:1865 Didn’t publish is ideas for 20 years!!! Why? Wallace comes up with the idea of Natural Selection independently of Darwin. Forces Darwin to finally publish his book on Evolution
► What happens when science gets in the way of religion and politics?
► “I cannot persuade myself that a beneficent and omnipotent God would have designedly created parasitic wasps with the express intention of their feeding within the living bodies of Caterpillars.” ► Charles Darwin
► The second page of the Origin prominently displays this quote: ► “To conclude, therefore, let no man out of a weak conceit of sobriety, or an ill-applied moderation, think or maintain, that a man can search too far or be too well studied in the book of God's word, or in the book of God's works; divinity or philosophy; but rather let men endeavour an endless progress or proficience in both.” - Bacon: "Advancement of Learning"[iv]
Social Darwinism ► Social Darwinism was accepted by most white westerners. ► Popular non-fiction included the works of Walter Baghot, Benjamin Kidd and Charles Dike. ► Popular fiction writers, like Rudyard Kipling echoed their views. ► Tabloid newspapers upheld these notions.
Social Darwinism “Some groups of people survive and compete better than others. The struggle leads to human progress. Some groups advance human progress more than others.” (From Pierre L. van den Berghe, Race & Racism
Herbert Spencer ► Spencer was a social evolutionist. ► He coined the term Survival of the Fittest
Social Darwinism. ► Proponents saw western science as providing material benefits to the world. ► They observed ongoing struggles for territory and commerce. ► They regarded conflicts between men as inevitable.
Social Darwinism ► Soft, gentle, kind and humane groups were apt to lose out to more diabolical rivals. ► Man, in the evolutionary process, bred some races that were superior to others. ► Survival of the fittest ensured progress for all of mankind.
► C. Cultural Motives ► The late nineteenth century Christian revival included a commitment to exporting Western “civilization” through Christian missionary activity. ►.►.►.►.
Missionaries in Africa
► D. Economic Motives ► The industrialization of Europe and North America stimulated a demand for minerals, industrial crops, and stimulants (sugar, coffee, tea, and tobacco). ► Entrepreneurs and investors looked to profit from mines, plantations, and railroads in Asia, Africa, and Latin America.
► E. The Tools of the Imperialists
► Colonial Agents and Administration ► Colonies were administered with the cooperation of indigenous elites. Colonial administrations used two different types of indigenous elites: traditional rulers and youths.
“Women have been taught that, for us, the earth is flat, and that if we venture out, we will fall off the edge.”
Suez Canal 1880s
Suez Canal (Egypt) In 1841 Egypt broke away in a nationalist revolution Muhammad Ali led Egypt & modernized it somewhat Egypt worked w/ a French company to build the Suez Canal between Red & Mediterranean sea, a route which was vital for Europes trade w/ Asia SC put Egypt in huge debt —did not have the $ to repay European Banks (especially to the French banks)
British control of Egypt (Suez Canal) 1882 GB wanted unlimited access to SC—did not want to have to ask any other nation to use it Wanted “lifeline” in their empire to connect all imperial territory (esp. India) 1882—GB sent troops to Egypt and made it a British “protectorate” —meaning GB had complete access & control of nation
"At that time there were many blank spaces on the earth, and when I saw one that looked particularly inviting on a map (but they all look that) I would put my finger on it and say, "When I grow up I will go there... True, by this time it was not a blank space any more. I had got filled in since my boyhood with rivers and lakes and names. It had ceased to be a blank space of delightful mystery -- a white patch for a boy to dream gloriously over. It had become a place of darkness“ (Conrad 5).
Initial Occupation 1885 The Berlin Conference approves King Leopold’s claim to “The Congo Free State” as his personal colony until International investors supported his claim to Congo. He established rule with his personal army and he also expected the Belgian army to assist. Info Source: ("Congo Free State,"). Picture: hbw2000.com
Ivory and rubber were the main exports. Both were collected through a system of slave labor controlled by Leopold’s agents. Pneumatic tires drastically increases the demand for rubber. Picture: vietnambusiness.asia Info Source: ("Congo- the Brutal," n.d.). Benefits To The Imperial Power
Connect the dots – Industrialization leads to Imperialism
Leopold "I do not want to miss a good chance of getting us a slice of this magnificent African cake."
Belgian Congo Map Picture: Culturegrams.com
Benefits and modernization ► The Belgian modernized the colony ► The Belgians built railroads and automobiles ► They brought over electricity and telephones ► ("Encyclopedia Britannica,“). ► AT WHAT PRICE? ed/topic/59224/Belgian-Congo
The chicotte, a particularly vicious type of whip made from rhinoceros hide. " The station chief selects the victims....Trembling, haggard, they lie face down on the ground...two of their companions, sometimes four, seize them by the feet and hands, and remove their cotton drawers....Each time that the torturer lifts up the chicotte, a reddish stripe appears on the skin of the pitiful victims, who, however firmly held, gasp in frightful contortions....At the first blows the unhappy victims let out horrible cries which soon become faint groans....In a refinement of evil, some officers, and I've witnessed this, demand that when the sufferer gets up, panting, he must graciously give the military salute.” -- Stanislas Lefranc, Belgian prosecutor
Women kept hostage to force their husbands to go and gather rubber. Rubber was harvested by climbing the rubber tree, tapping into it and letting the sap run all over the slave’s body, where it would congeal. Later he would peel the rubber off his body, taking any body hair with it. Rubber harvesters were given impossible quotas to fill each month. In addition to enduring the hardships of gathering rubber in the jungle, many of them were killed by wild animals.
Two victims (l.) who lost their hands, one because his wrists were tied too tightly, the other because company militia cut it off to claim him as killed and get a reward. Below, a father looks at the severed hand and foot of his daughter Belgian Congo
8-9 Million Victims! (50% of Popul.) It is blood-curdling to see them (the soldiers) returning with the hands of the slain, and to find the hands of young children amongst the bigger ones evidencing their bravery...The rubber from this district has cost hundreds of lives, and the scenes I have witnessed, while unable to help the oppressed, have been almost enough to make me wish I were dead... This rubber traffic is steeped in blood, and if the natives were to rise and sweep every white person on the Upper Congo into eternity, there would still be left a fearful balance to their credit. -- Belgian Official
CECIL RHODES ( ) ► British businessman and politician in southern Africa ► Made a fortune from African diamond mines ► Established South African Company Land later became Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) ► Prime minister of Cape Colony ( ) Wanted British control over South Africa Wanted Cape-to-Cairo Railroad ► Architect of British imperialism in southern Africa Great Britain became leading colonial power in southern Africa
CECIL RHODES ( )
► WHAT ABOUT MISSIONARIES?
III. Asia and Western Dominance ► Between 1865 and 1876 Russia was able to use modern weapons to advance into Central Asia. ► The nomadic Kazhaks resisted fiercely ► South of the Kazhak steppe the decline of Qing power allowed the Russians to take over Muslim populations
► B. Southeast Asia and Indonesia ► Burma, Malaya, Indochina, and northern Sumatra, all independent kingdoms in the first half of the nineteenth century, were conquered by stages between 1850 and the early 1900s. Only Siam remained independent. ► All these areas had fertile soil, a favorable climate, and a highly developed agriculture. ► Colonialism contributed to an expansion of the agricultural population, immigration from China and India, and the spread of Islam.
► C. Hawaii and the Philippines, 1878–1902 ► By the late 1890s the U.S. economy was in need of export markets and the political mood was favorable to expansionism. The Hawaiian Islands, controlled by American settlers since 1893, were annexed in ► In the Philippines, Emilio Aguinaldo led an uprising against the Spanish in He might very well have succeeded in establishing a republic if the United States had not purchased the Philippines from Spain at the end of the Spanish-American War. ► In 1899 Aguinaldo rose up against the American occupation.
IV. Imperialism in Latin America ► A. Railroads and the Imperialism of Free Trade ► The natural resources of the Latin American republics made them targets for a form of economic dependence called free-trade imperialism. ► British and the United States’ entrepreneurs financed and constructed railroads in order to exploit the agricultural and mineral wealth of Latin America.
► B. American Expansionism and the Spanish- American War, 1898 ► After 1865 the European powers used their financial power to penetrate Latin America, but they avoided territorial conquest. The Monroe Doctrine prohibited European intervention in the Western Hemisphere, but this did not prevent the United States from intervening in the affairs of Latin American nations. ► After defeating Spain in the Spanish-American War, the United States took over Puerto Rico, while Cuba became an independent republic subject to intense interference by the United States.
► C. American Intervention in the Caribbean and Central America, 1901–1914 ► The United States often used military intervention to force the small nations of Central America and the Caribbean to repay loans owed to banks in Europe or the United States. ► The United States was particularly forceful in Panama, supporting the Panamanian rebellion against Colombia in 1903 and then building and controlling the Panama Canal.
V. The World Economy and the Global Environment ► A. Expansion of the World Economy ► The industrial revolution greatly expanded the demand for spices, silk, agricultural goods, and raw materials in the industrialized countries. The growing need for these products could not be met by traditional methods of production and transportation, so the imperialists brought their colonies into the mainstream of the world market and introduced new technologies. ► The greatest change was in transportation. Canals, steamships, harbor improvements, and railroads cut travel time and lowered freight costs.
► B. Transformation of the Global Environment ► The economic changes brought by Europeans and Americans altered environments around the world. ► The expansion of permanent agriculture and the increased use of irrigation and water control led to increased agricultural production in both well- watered and dry areas of the tropics. ► Railroads consumed vast amounts of land, timber, iron, and coal while opening up previously remote land to development. The demand for gold, iron, and other minerals fueled a mining boom that brought toxic run-off from open mines.