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1 Grain Storage - Store pests and diseases.  Describe common pests of a given crop group.  Describe best practice in relation to pesticide usage.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Grain Storage - Store pests and diseases.  Describe common pests of a given crop group.  Describe best practice in relation to pesticide usage."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Grain Storage - Store pests and diseases

2  Describe common pests of a given crop group.  Describe best practice in relation to pesticide usage

3  Grain storage pests  Field pests ◦ Slugs ◦ Leatherjackets ◦ Aphids  Pests of oilseed rape  Potato pests – PCN  Pesticide best practice – The Basics

4  Saw tooth grain beetle  Grain Weevil  Grain mites  Rats/Mice

5 5  Prior to filling, grain stores should be: ◦ Thoroughly cleaned ◦ Fumigated ◦ Vermin proof ◦ Weather proof

6 6 Saw-toothed grain beetle ◦ Survive in previous grain residues. ◦ Multiply at MC above 14% and temperatures from °C. ◦ Feed on the grain in both adult and larvae stages causing hotspots.

7 7  Control by: ◦ Store hygiene ◦ Drying grain below 14% MC and cool to 15°C. ◦ Apply insecticide to grain

8 8 Saw toothed grain beetle – Oryzaephilus surinamensis

9 9  Control: ◦ Store hygiene ◦ Store below 12 °C ◦ Apply insecticide to grain

10 10  Survive in store and on residues of previous crop.  Brought in on grain.  Adult females bore holes in grain and lay eggs.  Larvae eat the grain from inside. Grain Weevil

11 11 Grain weevil -Sitophilus granarius

12 12 Grain Mites  Enter store on grain or survive in store residues.  Damage grain by eating the germ and causing taints and fungal infections.  Multiply rapidly in moist conditions.

13 13 Control by  Keeping the grain dry – 14% MC  Maintain store RH below 65%  Store hygiene

14 14 Grain mite – Glycyphagus species

15 15 1. Primary pests – these live, feed and develop in grain stocks - the most serious group BeetlesMites Size<2mm diametre <5mm length 0.5mm Multiplication rate 60x per mth2,000 x per mth Min breed o CWeevils 13oC Beetles 18oC 5oC Min MC%2-12%15%

16 16 2 Secondary pests – feed on crop residues and mould  Often present with nesting birds  Usually a high fungal content in the crop  Often slower breeding and few generations  Tend to have a lower min breeding temp and prefer moister conditions 3 Strays – enter from outside store or brought in at harvest  Seldom cause damage but may lead to rejection of crop

17  House/field mice  Norway/Brown Rat Where possible, ensure that all doors are tight fitting and access to sheds is limited. Need to ensure that all bait points are monitored on a regular basis and all baits points are recorded on farmyard layout.

18 18 HazardRiskControl Fumigants used pre storage. Poisoned by gas Stay out of store during fumigation. Ventilate before entering. Loose grainBuried by grain Do not climb on the sides of loose heaps of grain. Grain pesticide dressings Poisoned by pesticides. Wash hands after handling treated grain. Air-tight binsSuffocationStay out of sealed bins unless they have been ventilated. Propionic acidSkin damage by acid. Wear PPE. Wash off spills immediately.

19  Slugs  Leatherjackets  Grain Aphids  Potato Cyst Nematode (PCN)

20  Mollusca  Soft slimy bodies,  Prone to drying out and must retreat to damp places when weather dries up.  Controlled by cultural (rove beetles) and slug pellets (metiocarb, methalyhde, etc. )

21  Bait to assess numbers  Threshold for treatment ◦ Winter Wheat 4 slugs/trap ◦ WOSR1 slug/trap  Size of trap, 30cm x 30cm.  Metaldehyde stewardship

22

23  Larvae of cranefly (daddy long legs)  Feeds on roots of grasses  Feeds directly on seeds in the soil.  Adults lay eggs in Aug-Oct ◦ Depending on weather damage is seen as feeding in following spring

24  Monitor to assess levels  Reseeds & cereals exiting long term leys highest risk  Chlopyrifos

25  Feed on all cereal crops  Feeds on phloem of plant by using spikelet to burrow down into get sugar from plant.  Primary cause of BYDV in cereals  Activity will increase in warm weather.

26 BYDV controlled by  Long cultivation window – 3 weeks  Bury grass + trash  Seed treatment to control virus vectors  Monitor aphid migration + Spray aphicide

27  Potato Cyst Nematodes (PCN) also known as eel worms.  Feed on roots of Solanaceae Family(potatoes and tomatoes)  Can cause a yield reduction in up to 60% in infected fields.

28

29  Rotation  Plant certified basic seed  PCN soil sampling when using farm saved seed  Clean shared machinery  Dispose of grader waste to an on-farm tip or field of origin  Do not feed or spread untreated vegetable waste  Be wary of imported animal manures

30 Cabbage Stem Flea BeetlePollen Beetles

31 31

32 32  Prior to filling, grain stores should be:

33 33 Grain weevil -Sitophilus granarius

34 34 Grain mite – Glycyphagus species

35 35 Name this store pest

36

37  From 26 th Nov 2015 only sprayer operators with a PA1 & PA2 will be legally be able to apply chemicals.  To apply pesticides must have a recommendation from a BASIS qualified adviser  Treatments must be recorded in the pesticides application record book.

38 It also helps you use the pesticide: ◦ Safely ◦ Effectively ◦ Accurately Contains information to help you get the best performance from the pesticide PESTICIDE PRODUCT LABEL

39  Contains a lot of information  Some information legally binding. Read and Understand the product label Main categories of text: 1.Important information – eg dose rates, application rates, etc 2.Advisory Information – eg compatability, timings, etc

40  Product Name:Agritox  Approval Number:MAPP  Active Ingredient:MCPA  Pesticide Type:Herbicide  What insects are controlled by this product:Broad-leaved weeds  Crops on which product may be used:Winter and Spring Wheat, Barley, Rye, Oats and Grassland  Product Form (Liquid or Powder):Liquid  Product Hazard Symbol:Harmful and Dangerous for the Environment  Approved Field of Use:As an Agricultural Herbicide to control Broad-leaved weeds on Wheat, Barley, Rye, Oats and Grassland. PESTICIDE LABEL PLEASE FIND THE FOLLOWING INFORMATION Restrictions (give 3):Any 3 Sprayer Application Rate /Ha (litres):Not Less than 200L/Ha Spray Quality:Medium / Coarse Is Agritox compatible with other products? Yes What Advice is given?Consult Manufacturer or Agronomist List Operator PPE:Coveralls, Gloves, Face Shield Environmental Protection List Buffer Zones for this product:Flowing Water5 metres Dry Ditch1 metre Can Buffer zone be reduced under LERAPYes What is an Adjuvant?A wetter or sticker to improve product effectiveness Application Of Product Maximum Individual Dose Maximum Total Dose Latest Time of Application Winter & Spring Wheat, Barley, Rye & Oats 3.3 L/Ha3.3 L/Ha/Crop Before 1 st Node Detectable (GS 31) Undersown Cereals (as above) with Red Clover 1.4 L/Ha1.4 L/Ha/Crop Before 1 st Node Detectable (GS 31) Grassland3.3 L/Ha6.6 L/Ha/CropNot Applicable

41 PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT CoverallGlovesFace shield GogglesDust maskFootwear Respiratory Protective Equipment (RPE) Waterproof apron

42 Pesticide Application Record Date Site of Application Crop Treated Reason for Treatment Pesticide Used Pesticide Dose Rate (l/ha or kg/ha) Spray Application Rate (l/ha) Nozzle type and Code Spray Pressure (bar) Weather Conditions Start Time Finish Time Other Relevant Information Operators Name Operators Signature


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