2 Pesticide Product Labeling Is the main method of communication between a pesticide manufacturer and the pesticide user.
3 Pesticide Product Labeling The information attached to the pesticide container is the label. Labeling includes the label plus all other information you receive from the manufacturer about the product when you buy it.
4 Pesticide Product Labeling Labeling can come in the form of pamphlets or brochures. By law you must have all the pesticide labeling with you when you apply the pesticide. Not just the pesticide container.
5 Pesticide Product Labeling To the manufacturer it is the license to sell the product.
6 Pesticide Product Labeling To medical personnel it can be an important source of treatment information in the case of poisoning.
7 Pesticide Product Labeling To the applicator it is directions on how to use the product safely and properly.
8 Pesticide Product Labeling To the government it is a means for control. If a pesticide poses an unreasonable risk to people or the environment its uses can be restricted or cancelled. For example uses of DDT, chlordane, 2,4,5-T and others have been cancelled in the U.S.
9 EPA Approval of Pesticide Labeling The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) must approve the manufacture's application for registration before the product can be used.
10 Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) 7 U.S.C. s/s 136 et seq. (1972) Provides for federal control of pesticide distribution, sale, and use. EPA was given authority under FIFRA to study the consequences of pesticide usage and require users (farmers, utility companies, and others) to register when purchasing pesticides.
11 FIFRA (con’t) Through later amendments to the law, users also must take exams for certification as applicators of pesticides. All pesticides used in the U.S. must be registered (licensed) by EPA. Registration assures that pesticides will be properly labeled and that if used in accordance with specifications, will not cause unreasonable harm to the environment.
12 FIFRA (con’t) For questions concerning pesticides you can call the Pesticide Team in EPA's regional 8 office in Denver, at: 1-800-227-8917
13 Types of Registration There are three major types of registration –Federal registration (Section 3) –special local needs registration (SLN or Section 24c) –emergency exemptions from registration (Section 18)
14 Classification of Pesticide Uses Unclassified or General Use –for use by the general public. Roundup, 2,4-D, malathion Restricted Use –must have a license to apply Tordon 22k, Temik, zinc phosphide
15 Restricted Use Pesticide A pesticide or some of its uses are classified as restricted if it could cause harm to humans or to the environment unless it is applied by certified applicators who have the knowledge to use these pesticides safely and effectively.
16 Certified Pesticide Applicators Private applicators use or supervise the use of restricted use pesticides to produce an agricultural commodity on property owned or rented by themselves or their employer, or on the property of another person with whom they trade services.
17 Certified Pesticide Applicators Commercial applicators use or supervise the use of restricted use pesticides on any property or for any purpose other than that listed for private applicators.
18 Certified Pesticide Applicators In Wyoming, Commercial applicator also means a certified applicator who uses or supervises the use of any pesticide during any commercial application that is done by contract or hire.
19 Parts of Pesticide Labeling The information on pesticide labeling usually is grouped under headings to make it easier to find. Some information is required by law to appear on a certain part of the labeling or under certain headings. Other information may be placed wherever the manufacturer chooses.
20 Brand Name Each manufacturer has a brand name for each of its products. You must beware of choosing a product by brand name alone.
21 Brand Name (cont.) Companies may use the same basic brand name with only minor variations to designate different products.
26 Brand Name (cont.) Different companies may sell the same product under different brand names Weedar 64 = 4 lbs 2,4-D amine/gal (Nufarm, Inc.) Weed Pro 4# Amine = 4 lbs 2,4-D amine/gal (Van Diest Supply Company)
27 Brand Name (cont.) Always read the ingredient statement to determine the active ingredients that a product contains.
28 Ingredient Statement A pesticide label must list what is in the product. It must tell what the active ingredients are and the amount of each ingredient as a percentage of the total.
29 Ingredient Statement (con't) It must also list the chemical name and/or the common name for each active ingredient. Inert ingredients need not be named but the label must show what percentage of the total contents they make up.
30 Ingredient Statement (con't) For example a label with the brand name Tordon 22K would read:Active Ingredient(s): Picloram (4-amino-3,5,6-trichloropicolinic acid), as the potassium salt.............................................……………….…………………...................24.4% Inert Ingredients........................................................…………………..........75.6% Total........................................................................…………………............100.0% Acid Equivalent: Picloram (4-amino-3,5,6-trichloropicolinic acid) - 21.1% - 2 lb/gal E.P.A. Registration No. 62719-6 E.P.A. Est. 464-MI-1
31 Registration and Establishment Numbers These numbers are needed in case of poisoning or misuse claims. Active Ingredient(s): Picloram (4-amino-3,5,6-trichloropicolinic acid), as the potassium salt........................……………......................………………......................24.4% Inert Ingredients............................................................……………….......75.6% Total………………....................................................................................100.0% Acid Equivalent: Picloram (4-amino-3,5,6-trichloropicolinic acid) - 21.1% - 2 lb/gal E.P.A. Registration No. 62719-6 E.P.A. Est. 464-MI-1
32 Registration Number The registration number indicates that the pesticide label has been approved by EPA. Most products contain two sets of numbers. The first set identifies the company. The second set identifies the product.
33 Registration Number (con't) State or SLN registrations –SLN = Special Local Need –EPA SLN No. WY-840001
34 Establishment Number Identifies the facility where the product was made.
35 Name and Address of Manufacturer The law requires the maker or distributor of a product to put the name and address of the company on the label. –Monsanto Company –Agricultural Products –St. Louis, Missouri 63167 U.S.A.
36 Net Contents Tells you how much product is in the container.
37 Type of Pesticide This statement indicates what the product will control. –Tordon 22K Susceptible broadleaf weeds and woody plants –Guthion 2S Emulsifiable Insecticide –Benlate Fungicide
38 Type of Formulation Some pesticide labels will tell you what kind of formulation the product is. –WP = wettable powder –D = dust –EC = emulsifiable concentrate
39 Restricted-Use Designation The label will state "Restricted Use Pesticide" in a box at the top of the front panel. RESTRICTED USE PESTICIDE May injure (Phytotoxic) Susceptible, Non-target Plants. For retail sale to and use only by Certified Applicators or persons under their direct supervision and only for those uses covered by the Certified Applicator's certification. Commercial certified applicators must also ensure that all persons involved in these activities are informed of the precautionary statements.
40 Front-Panel Precautionary Statements Signal Words and Symbols Three toxicity categories with associated signal words and symbols –1. Highly toxic Danger-Poison with skull and crossbones –2. Moderately toxic Warning –3. Low or relatively nontoxic Caution
41 Front-Panel Precautionary Statements Signal Words and Symbols The signal word -- DANGER, WARNING, or CAUTION -- must appear on the front panel of the label.
42 Signal Words and Symbols (con't) Indicate how acutely toxic the product is to humans. It is immediately below the statement, " Keep out of reach of children," which also must appear on every label.
43 Signal Words and Symbols (con't) Is not based on the active ingredients alone, but on the contents of the formulated product (includes active ingredients, carriers, solvents, or inert ingredients).
44 Signal Words and Symbols (con't) Indicates the risk of acute effects from the four routes of exposure to a pesticide product (oral, dermal, inhalation, and eye) and is based on the one that is the greatest.
45 Signal Words and Symbols (con't) The signal word does not indicate the risk of delayed effects or allergic effects. Use the signal word to help you decide what precautionary measures are needed for protection.
46 Signal Words and Symbols (con't) DANGER -- POISON –Highly toxic. Very likely to cause acute illness, cause severe eye or skin injury, or DEATH.
48 Signal Words and Symbols (con't) DANGER -- POISON –Only takes a taste to a teaspoon taken by mouth to cause your death. –LD 50 = ~0 to 50 mg/kg (ppm)
49 Signal Words and Symbols (con't) What is LD 50 ? –It is the lethal oral dose in mg of toxicant (pesticide) per kg of body weight (ppm) required to kill 50% of a test population of animals, usually rats or mice. –This information is then used to estimate the toxicity of the pesticide to humans.
50 Signal Words and Symbols (con't) What is LD 50 ? (con’t) –The lower the LD 50 the more toxic the pesticide. –Usually will not find on the pesticide labeling. –It may be used to compare the relative toxicity of different chemicals.
51 Signal Words and Symbols (con't) Products that have the signal word DANGER due to skin and eye irritation potential will not carry the word POISON or the skull and crossbones symbol.
59 Signal Words and Symbols (con't) Review of toxicity categories
60 Pesticide Toxicity Toxicity –The measure of the ability of a pesticide to cause harmful effects –Depends on active ingredient carrier inert ingredient formulation
61 Pesticide Toxicity Hazard = toxicity x exposure –The dose make the poison Exposure is the amount of pesticide you are exposed to through oral, dermal or inhalation contact Remember the lower the LD 50 the more toxic the chemical
63 What toxicity category does this pesticide fall under?
64 Pesticide Exposure A person can be exposed to pesticides by: –Oral (drinking the pesticide) –Inhalation (breathing the pesticide spray or fumes) –Dermal (absorption through the skin) most common route of exposure
68 Antidote Statement Atropine sulfate is highly effective as an antidote. See note to physician.
69 Note to Physician Contains important treatment information for medical personnel.
70 Hazards to Humans and Domestic Animals Acute Effects Statements Indicate which route of entry needs to be protected and what specific actions need to be taken to avoid acute effects from exposure to pesticides.
71 Acute Effects Statements (con't) Example: –Fatal if swallowed. Causes cholinesterase inhibition. May be fatal or harmful by skin or eye contact or by breathing dust. Rapidly absorbed through skin or eyes. Do not get on skin or in eyes. Do not breathe dust. Keep away from domestic animals.
72 Delayed Effects Statements Will tell you if the product has been shown to cause problems such as tumors or reproductive problems in lab animals.
73 Allergic Effects Statements Will tell you if the product can cause skin irritation, asthma or other allergic effects.
74 Personal Protective Equipment Statements Tell you the minimum protective equipment that you must wear.
75 Pesticide Safety (con’t) I think I was exposed to a pesticide. What should I do? Call the: Rocky Mountain Poison and Drug Center:Rocky Mountain Poison and Drug Center 1-800-332-3073 or (303)-739-1123
76 Pesticide Safety (con’t) You can also call EPA's Region 8 Toxicologist, Dr. Suzanne Wuerthele at: 1-800-227-8917 x 6039 or (303)- 312-6039
77 Environmental Hazards Will indicate precautions for protecting the environment.
78 Environmental Hazards (con't) This pesticide is extremely toxic to aquatic and estuarine invertebrates. BEE CAUTION: MAY KILL HONEYBEES IN SUBSTANTIAL NUMBERS.
79 Environmental Hazards (con't) Do not contaminate water when cleaning equipment or applying the pesticide.
80 Physical or Chemical Hazards Tells you of any special fire, explosion, or chemical hazards the product may pose.
81 Physical or Chemical Hazards (con't) Flammable. Do not use, pour, spill, or store near heat or open flame. Do not cut or weld container.
82 Directions for Use Contains misuse statement: –It is a violation of Federal law to use this product in a manner inconsistent with its labeling.
83 Directions for Use (con't) Also contains sections on storage, disposal, entry and specific directions for using the product.
84 Directions for Use (con't) Use Inconsistent with the labeling It is illegal to use a pesticide in any way not permitted by the labeling. The use directions and instructions are not advice, they are requirements.
85 Directions for Use (con't) Use Inconsistent with the labeling Federal law does allow you to: –apply a pesticide at any dosage, concentration, or frequency less than that listed on the labeling,
86 Directions for Use (con't) Use Inconsistent with the labeling Federal law does allow you to: –apply a pesticide against any target pest not listed on the labeling if the application is to a plant, animal, or site that is listed,
87 Directions for Use (con't) Use Inconsistent with the labeling Federal law does allow you to: –use any appropriate equipment or method of application that is not prohibited by the labeling,
88 Directions for Use (con't) Use Inconsistent with the labeling Federal law does allow you to: –mix a pesticide or pesticides with a fertilizer if the mixture is not prohibited by the labeling,
89 Directions for Use (con't) Use Inconsistent with the labeling Federal law does allow you to: –mix two or more pesticides, if all of the dosages are at or below the recommended rate.
90 Directions for Use (con't) Entry statement Tells you how much time must pass before people can enter a treated area except under special circumstances. REI - restricted entry interval
91 Directions for Use (con't) Entry statement Example:
92 Directions for Use (con't) Posting If required by the label you must post the area that has been treated. This will let people know when they can safely reenter the area without safety clothing or equipment.
93 Directions for Use (con't) Preharvest Interval With some pesticides you must wait a certain amount of time after application before you harvest the crop for consumption. This will keep pesticide residues within legal tolerances in the harvested crop.
94 Directions for Use (con't) Preharvest Interval Example –For potatoes do not apply within 14 days of harvest.
95 Directions for Use (con't) Storage and disposal All labeling contains instructions for storing the pesticide. –Keep out of reach of children and pets –Do not store in temperatures below 32 F
96 Directions for Use (con't) Storage and disposal labeling also contains instructions for disposal of the pesticide. –Pesticide Disposal: Wastes resulting from the use of this product may be disposed of on site or at an approved waste disposal facility. –Plastic Container Disposal: Do not reuse container. Triple rinse (or equivalent). Puncture and dispose of in a sanitary landfill, or by incineration, or, if allowed by burning. If burned stay out of smoke.
97 Directions for Use (con't) Storage and Disposal Pressure Rinse Convenient way to remove chemical from container Save money by using all the product Use with plastic or metal containers Destroys container so it can’t be used to hold other liquids
98 Directions for Use (con't) Other directions for use Use directions will tell you: –pests the product will control, –plant, animal, or site the product will protect, –in what form the product should be applied,
99 Directions for Use (con't) Other directions for use Use directions will tell you: –the correct equipment to use, –how much pesticide to use, –mixing directions,
100 Directions for Use (con't) Other directions for use Use directions will tell you: –if the product can be mixed with other products, –if the product will cause unwanted injuries or stains, –where, when, and how often the product should be applied.
101 Directions for Use (con't) Directions for use by reference Some directions for use may be contained in documents that are only referred to on the product labeling.
102 Directions for Use (con't) Directions for use by reference ground water protection endangered species protection worker protection pesticide transportation, storage, and disposal
103 Groundwater Protection ~ 90% of rural residents rely on groundwater for their drinking water Pesticides that have a potential to contaminate groundwater are: –highly soluble in water –have low adsorption to soil particles –are persistent in the environment Example: Tordon, Banvel, Temik
104 Endangered Species Act (1973) To comply with the Endangered Species Act, EPA must ensure that registered pesticides do not adversely affect threatened or endangered species or modify critical habitat when used as directed. For pesticides that may affect listed species, EPA consults with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife.
105 Endangered Species Act Wyoming’s list --12 species –Animals--11 species T -- Bear, grizzly (Ursus arctos) * E -- Crane, whooping (Grus americana) * E -- Dace, Kendall Warm Springs (Rhinichthys osculus thermalis) * T -- Eagle, bald (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) * E -- Falcon, American peregrine (Falco peregrinus anatum) E -- Ferret, black-footed (Mustela nigripes) * T -- Mouse, Preble's meadow jumping (Zapus hudsonius preblei) * E -- Squawfish, Colorado (Ptychocheilus lucius) * E -- Sucker, razorback (Xyrauchen texanus) * E -- Toad, Wyoming (Bufo hemiophrys baxteri) * E -- Wolf, gray (Canis lupus) * –Plants--1 species T -- Ute ladies'-tresses (Spiranthes diluvialis) –T = threatened E = endangered
121 Worker Protection Standard for Agricultural Pesticides The Worker Protection Standard (WPS) is intended to reduce the risk of pesticide poisonings and injuries among agricultural workers who are exposed to pesticide residues, and to reduce the risk of pesticide poisonings and injuries among pesticide handlers who may face more hazardous levels of exposure.
122 Worker Protection Standard for Agricultural Pesticides EPA has issued regulations governing the protection of workers from agricultural pesticides. These regulations include workers performing –hand labor operations on farms, in forests, nurseries, and greenhouses, and employees who handle (mix, load, apply, ect.) pesticides in these locations.
123 Worker Protection Standard for Agricultural Pesticides The WPS does not cover pesticides applied: –on pastures, range land, or livestock; –on the harvested portions of plants or on harvested timber; –for control of vertebrate pests, such as rodents; –on plants grown in home gardens and home greenhouses; –on plants that are in golf courses (except those areas set aside for plant production) or right-of-way areas; –on public or private lawns (sod farms are covered by the WPS); –on plants intended only for decorative or ornamental use (trees and shrubs in lawns); –for mosquito abatement, or similar wide area public pest control programs; –for structural pest control, such as termite control; and –for research uses of unregistered pesticides.
124 Worker Protection Standard for Agricultural Pesticides Read the label to see if you need to comply with worker protection standards
125 Directions for Use (con't) Directions for use by reference You must: –determine whether you are affected, –locate the applicable directions for use, –determine how to comply with the instructions and requirements.