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Serial Killers Serial Killers are a study in the psychopathic perversion - usually a man with a sexual dysfunction The US has 5% of the world’s population.

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Presentation on theme: "Serial Killers Serial Killers are a study in the psychopathic perversion - usually a man with a sexual dysfunction The US has 5% of the world’s population."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Serial Killers Serial Killers are a study in the psychopathic perversion - usually a man with a sexual dysfunction The US has 5% of the world’s population and 75% of its serial killers Buffalo Bill is the serial killer in The Silence of the Lambs Dr. Lecter says that Buffalo Bill was not born, but made through years of child abuse Buffalo Bill dresses like a woman, wears makeup, hides his penis = gay lifestyles? Film perpetuates the idea that if you are gay and a man you really want to be a woman Film links homosexuality, transsexuals, and female impersonation directly to killing

3 2 Serial murder Films USA Decade No. of films 1920s s3 1940s3 1950s4 1960s s s s64

4 Serial murder Films USA

5 General Serial Killer Profile Demographics Male (88.3%) Male (88.3%) White White 80% of all serial killers 80% of all serial killers 73% of male serial killers 73% of male serial killers 93% of female serial killers 93% of female serial killers Average intelligence Average intelligence 107 in our data base 107 in our data base n = 71 n = 71 Often a police groupie Often a police groupie Seldom involved with groups Seldom involved with groups

6 General Serial Killer Profile Demographics – Average age is 28 Males Males 27.5 is average age at first kill 27.5 is average age at first kill 9 is the youngest (Clarence Hill) 9 is the youngest (Clarence Hill) 72 is the oldest (Ray Copeland) 72 is the oldest (Ray Copeland) Jesse Pomeroy (Boston in the 1870s) Jesse Pomeroy (Boston in the 1870s) Killed 28 people by the age of 14 Killed 28 people by the age of 14 Spent 58 years in solitary confinement until he died Spent 58 years in solitary confinement until he died Females (Kelleher & Kelleher, 1998) Females (Kelleher & Kelleher, 1998) 30 is average age at first kill 30 is average age at first kill 14 is youngest (Caril Ann Fugate) 14 is youngest (Caril Ann Fugate) 55 is oldest (Marie Becker) 55 is oldest (Marie Becker) Angels of death, revenge killers, and team killers tend to be younger Angels of death, revenge killers, and team killers tend to be younger

7 General Serial Killer Profile Race RacePercentage White80.1% Black13.0% Hispanic4.5% Asian2.4%

8 General Serial Killer Profile Childhood Unstable home (37%) Unstable home (37%) Absence of loving and nurturing relationship Absence of loving and nurturing relationship Physical ailments and disabilities Physical ailments and disabilities Head injuries Head injuries Triad Triad bed wetting bed wetting fire starting fire starting animal torture animal torture

9 Effects of the Family Child Abuse Comparison of Serial Killers to the General Population (Mitchell & Aamodt, 2004) Type of AbuseGeneral Population Serial Killers Physical6%36% Sexual3%26% Psychological2%50% Neglect18% Other6%Not applicable No Abuse Reported70%32%

10 General Serial Killer Profile Forensic History Triad Triad Most have a criminal history (80%) Most have a criminal history (80%) 75% spent time in jail/prison prior to their serial killing 75% spent time in jail/prison prior to their serial killing Many received psychiatric treatment Many received psychiatric treatment 33% spent time in a forensic unit 33% spent time in a forensic unit Many murdered well before their serial killing Many murdered well before their serial killing

11 Most frequently selected victims [Hickey (2002; 399 serial killers)] Strangers (70%) 1. College students, prostitutes 2. Little boys and girls 3. Hitchhikers 4. People at home 5. Handicapped people 6. Store-owners, landlords 7. People walking street 8. Older women 9. Police officers 10. Derelicts/transients 11. People responding to newspaper ads Acquaintances (20%) 1. Friends and neighbours 2. Girlfriends and boyfriends 3. Waitresses and prostitutes 4. Co-workers 5. Landlords, employers, guards 6. Gang members 7. Patients Family (10%) 1. Own children 2. Husbands 3. Wives 4. In-laws 5. Nephews, nieces 6. Own mother 7. Sibling 8. Grandparents

12 Male Serial Killers(399): Methods 1. Firearms mainly (41%) 1. Firearms mainly (41%) 2. Suffocation (37%) 2. Suffocation (37%) 3. Stabbing (34%) 3. Stabbing (34%) 4. Bludgeoning (26%) 4. Bludgeoning (26%) 5. Firearms only (19%) 5. Firearms only (19%) 6. Poison (11%) 6. Poison (11%) 7. Drowning (3%) 7. Drowning (3%) 8. Other (2%) 8. Other (2%) Motives 1. Sex (55%) 1. Sex (55%) 2. Control (29%) 2. Control (29%) 3. Money (19%) 3. Money (19%) 4. Enjoyment (16%) 4. Enjoyment (16%) 5. Racism and hatred (11%) 5. Racism and hatred (11%) 6. Mental problems (6%) 6. Mental problems (6%) 7. Cult-inspired (5%) 7. Cult-inspired (5%) 8. Attention (2%) 8. Attention (2%)

13 Female Serial Killers (62): Methods 1. Poison (80%) 1. Poison (80%) 2. Shooting (20%) 2. Shooting (20%) 3. Bludgeoning (16%) 3. Bludgeoning (16%) 4. Suffocation (16%) 4. Suffocation (16%) 5. Stabbing (11%) 5. Stabbing (11%) 6. Drowning (5%) 6. Drowning (5%) Motives 1. Money (74%) 1. Money (74%) 2. Control (13%) 2. Control (13%) 3. Enjoyment (11%) 3. Enjoyment (11%) 4. Sex (10%) 4. Sex (10%) 5. Drugs, cult involvement, cover up, or feelings of inadequacy (24%) 5. Drugs, cult involvement, cover up, or feelings of inadequacy (24%)

14 III. Female Serial Killers & their victims Female serial killers tend to be "black widows" who kill a succession of husbands, lovers, or other family members. Female serial killers tend to be "black widows" who kill a succession of husbands, lovers, or other family members. They can also be nurses or other medical professionals who become self-appointed "angels of death" murdering babies, elderly, or the desperately ill in a misguided effort to relieve their suffering. They can also be nurses or other medical professionals who become self-appointed "angels of death" murdering babies, elderly, or the desperately ill in a misguided effort to relieve their suffering.

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16 Aggression Statistics 15,533 murders in the U.S. in ,533 murders in the U.S. in ,586 murders in the U.S. in ,586 murders in the U.S. in ,037 murders in the U.S. in ,037 murders in the U.S. in ,204 murders in the U.S. in ,204 murders in the U.S. in 2002 Expand definition to violent crime (murder, non-negligent manslaughter, rape, robbery, and aggravated assault): Expand definition to violent crime (murder, non-negligent manslaughter, rape, robbery, and aggravated assault): 1,430,693 in ,430,693 in ,425,486 in ,425,486 in ,439,480 in ,439,480 in ,426,325 in ,426,325 in 2002

17 What did Freud say? Eros: Life force Eros: Life force Drive-thwarted Drive-thwarted Instinct Instinct Catharsis Catharsis Thantos: death force Thantos: death force

18 What did Freud say? "The existence of this inclination to aggression, which we can detect in ourselves and justly assume to be present in others, is the factor which disturbs our relations with our neighbors and which forces civilization into such high expenditure [of energy]. In consequence of this primary mutual hostility of human beings, civilized society is perpetually threatened with disintegration. "The existence of this inclination to aggression, which we can detect in ourselves and justly assume to be present in others, is the factor which disturbs our relations with our neighbors and which forces civilization into such high expenditure [of energy]. In consequence of this primary mutual hostility of human beings, civilized society is perpetually threatened with disintegration.

19 What did Freud say? Civilization has to use its utmost efforts in order to set limits to man's aggressive instincts and to hold the manifestations of them in check by psychical reaction- formations. Hence, therefore, the use of methods intended to incite people into identifications and aim-inhibited relations of love, hence the restrictions upon sexual life, and hence too the ideal's commandment to love one's neighbor as oneself-a commandment which is really justified by the fact that nothing else runs so strongly counter to the original nature of man." Civilization has to use its utmost efforts in order to set limits to man's aggressive instincts and to hold the manifestations of them in check by psychical reaction- formations. Hence, therefore, the use of methods intended to incite people into identifications and aim-inhibited relations of love, hence the restrictions upon sexual life, and hence too the ideal's commandment to love one's neighbor as oneself-a commandment which is really justified by the fact that nothing else runs so strongly counter to the original nature of man."

20 Is Aggression Instinctual? Hobbes, Freud, and Lorenz say yes. Hobbes, Freud, and Lorenz say yes. Freud and Lorenz in particular believe that aggressive energy builds up and must be released. Freud and Lorenz in particular believe that aggressive energy builds up and must be released. Catharsis theory. Catharsis theory. Unfortunately, aggressive catharsis frequently leads to more aggression. Unfortunately, aggressive catharsis frequently leads to more aggression. One problem with instinctual explanations is that they tend to be descriptive and circular. One problem with instinctual explanations is that they tend to be descriptive and circular.

21 Theories of Aggression Leading Proponent: Konrad Lorenz (ethology) Leading Proponent: Konrad Lorenz (ethology) He says we have a biological need for aggression. It gets stronger as time passes since the last aggressive act (like hunger increases hours after a meal). He says we have a biological need for aggression. It gets stronger as time passes since the last aggressive act (like hunger increases hours after a meal). This causes our energy level (drive level) to increase. This energy must somehow be released (“catharsis”). This causes our energy level (drive level) to increase. This energy must somehow be released (“catharsis”). Instinct Theory: Through evolution, humans have inherited a fighting instinct similar to that found in many species of animals.

22 Theories of Aggression Instinct Theory says that humans learn their own individual ways of expressing aggressive motivation. Nonhuman species behave in ways that are genetically programmed and characteristic of all members of the species. Fixed Action Pattern: complex behavior that is largely unlearned and found in all members of a species (or subgroup), and that is triggered by a very simple stimulus in the environment (“releaser”).

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24 Hydraulic Theory predicts: 1. Aggression is inevitable - the accumulating energy must find an outlet 2. Humans & animals will actively 'look for fights'. 2. Humans & animals will actively 'look for fights'. 3. After an attack an animal / human will become less aggressive. 3. After an attack an animal / human will become less aggressive. 4. Animals reared in isolation will show aggressive behaviour. 4. Animals reared in isolation will show aggressive behaviour.

25 Roots of Violence Instinct- innate (unlearned) behavior pattern Instinct- innate (unlearned) behavior pattern Freud- redirecting the “death instinct” (thanatos) to others Freud- redirecting the “death instinct” (thanatos) to others Lorenz- inherited “fighting instinct” developed through the course of evolution (strongest survive) Lorenz- inherited “fighting instinct” developed through the course of evolution (strongest survive) Not supported because: Human aggression takes many forms Human aggression takes many forms Frequency of violence varies across cultures Frequency of violence varies across cultures Engaging in potentially lethal behavior makes little sense in evolutionary terms Engaging in potentially lethal behavior makes little sense in evolutionary terms

26 If not instinctual, can aggression still be biological? Evolutionary psychologists argue yes. Evolutionary psychologists argue yes. Buss and Shackleford propose that our ancestors found aggression to be adaptive. Buss and Shackleford propose that our ancestors found aggression to be adaptive. Lore and Schultz agree to a point. They also point out that most species have developed inhibitory mechanisms. Lore and Schultz agree to a point. They also point out that most species have developed inhibitory mechanisms. Thus, aggression is an optional strategy. Thus, aggression is an optional strategy.

27 Neurological and Chemical Influences Amygdala (located in the forebrain). Amygdala (located in the forebrain). Testosterone – leads to an increase in aggression, but also increases during aggression Testosterone – leads to an increase in aggression, but also increases during aggression If testosterone is linked to aggression, does this mean that men are more aggressive than women? If testosterone is linked to aggression, does this mean that men are more aggressive than women? Maccoby and Jacklin research suggests yes. Maccoby and Jacklin research suggests yes. Across cultures, women demonstrate less violence Across cultures, women demonstrate less violence Further, during era of womens’ liberation, non-violent crime rate relative to male rate has increased, but not violent crime rate. Further, during era of womens’ liberation, non-violent crime rate relative to male rate has increased, but not violent crime rate.

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30 Seretonin levels in suicide

31 Research on Humans General Research Question: Do men show reactive increases in testosterone after exposure to potential mates? General Research Question: Do men show reactive increases in testosterone after exposure to potential mates? Are hormonal responses related to behavioral measures of courtship? Are hormonal responses related to behavioral measures of courtship? Previous research on hormonal responses to sexual stimuli: Previous research on hormonal responses to sexual stimuli: A number of studies have found increased LH or testosterone levels in men within minutes of the onset of exposure to erotic or sexually explicit films A number of studies have found increased LH or testosterone levels in men within minutes of the onset of exposure to erotic or sexually explicit films However, no published studies have demonstrated increases in testosterone after more ecologically realistic social interactions with potential mates However, no published studies have demonstrated increases in testosterone after more ecologically realistic social interactions with potential mates

32 Study Design Male subjects (mean age = 21.36) were randomly assigned to a “male” (n=18) or “female” (n=21) condition Male subjects (mean age = 21.36) were randomly assigned to a “male” (n=18) or “female” (n=21) condition Subjects engaged in a 5-minute conversation with a male or female confederate Subjects engaged in a 5-minute conversation with a male or female confederate Saliva samples were taken before and 15 minutes after the interaction Saliva samples were taken before and 15 minutes after the interaction Confederates rated the subjects’ behavior during the interaction. Confederates rated the subjects’ behavior during the interaction.

33 Female condition: paired t (18) = 2.10, p =.05, d =.99 Male condition: paired t (17) = 0.90, p =.38, d =.44 Change scores did not differ significantly across conditions

34 r (19) =.52, p <.05 Roney et al., 2003 Change in Testosterone by Courtship-Like Behavior

35 Cues from Females Activation of Limbic- Hypothalamic Structures Courtship Behaviors (immediate) Testosterone Increase (post 20 minutes) r =.52

36 Violence in Hunter-Gatherer Society Yanomamo group of hunter-gatherers in Amazon studies over last 25 years (Napolean Chagnon) Yanomamo group of hunter-gatherers in Amazon studies over last 25 years (Napolean Chagnon) Inter-tribe violence very common with cycles of killings and retaliations – Chagnon estimated that about 70% of individuals over age 40 had lost at least one close genetic kin to homicide Inter-tribe violence very common with cycles of killings and retaliations – Chagnon estimated that about 70% of individuals over age 40 had lost at least one close genetic kin to homicide “…kinship groups that retaliate swiftly and demonstrate their resolve to avenge deaths acquire reputations for ferocity that deter the violent designs of their neighbors. … a group with a reputation for swift retaliation is attacked less frequently and thus suffers a lower rate of mortality. … Aggressive groups coerce nubile females from less aggressive groups whenever the opportunity arises. Many appear to calculate the costs and benefits of forcibly appropriating or coercing females from groups that are perceived to be weak.” “…kinship groups that retaliate swiftly and demonstrate their resolve to avenge deaths acquire reputations for ferocity that deter the violent designs of their neighbors. … a group with a reputation for swift retaliation is attacked less frequently and thus suffers a lower rate of mortality. … Aggressive groups coerce nubile females from less aggressive groups whenever the opportunity arises. Many appear to calculate the costs and benefits of forcibly appropriating or coercing females from groups that are perceived to be weak.”

37 Yanomamo men who have killed someone undergo a purification ritual that gives them the status of “unokai” Yanomamo men who have killed someone undergo a purification ritual that gives them the status of “unokai” Women almost never unokai Women almost never unokai Chagnon computed that unokai on average had more offspring than non- unokai – 4.91 vs on avg., collapsed across adult age groups Chagnon computed that unokai on average had more offspring than non- unokai – 4.91 vs on avg., collapsed across adult age groups Men who had killed also had more wives: 1.63 vs on average Men who had killed also had more wives: 1.63 vs on average He speculates that men who have killed are both considered more valuable to the group (avenge and deter attacks from other groups) and thus are more attractive as mates, and they are able to forcibly acquire resources/women from other men in the group He speculates that men who have killed are both considered more valuable to the group (avenge and deter attacks from other groups) and thus are more attractive as mates, and they are able to forcibly acquire resources/women from other men in the group

38 Roots of Violence (cont.) Biological Factors Biological Factors High testosterone linked to higher aggression and less helping behavior in both males and females High testosterone linked to higher aggression and less helping behavior in both males and females Low levels of serotonin inhibit ability to restrain aggressive urges Low levels of serotonin inhibit ability to restrain aggressive urges Drive theories—externally elicited drives arouses motive to harm others Drive theories—externally elicited drives arouses motive to harm others Frustration-aggression theory not well-supported because : Frustration-aggression theory not well-supported because : Frustration may lead to sadness, depression Frustration may lead to sadness, depression People may aggress for other reasons (boxers, soldiers) People may aggress for other reasons (boxers, soldiers)

39 XYY- Super Male Syndrome Criminal Chromosomes?

40 Supermale? Or supercriminal? Early work with karyotyping showed that normal men have an X and a Y sex chromosome, unlike women who have two X chromosomes. In 1961, Sandberg et al. found a man with an extra Y Chromosome (XYY). Since the Y chromosome codes for ‘maleness’ these individuals were dubbed ‘super-males’. [Ritter, 1993] Early work with karyotyping showed that normal men have an X and a Y sex chromosome, unlike women who have two X chromosomes. In 1961, Sandberg et al. found a man with an extra Y Chromosome (XYY). Since the Y chromosome codes for ‘maleness’ these individuals were dubbed ‘super-males’. [Ritter, 1993] In 1965 a well-respected geneticist, Patricia Jacobs, stated that the incidence of XYY condition among the prison population was 20 times greater than normal. Her study linked the XYY condition with subnormal IQ and tendencies for violent crime.[Jacobs et.al. 1965]. In 1965 a well-respected geneticist, Patricia Jacobs, stated that the incidence of XYY condition among the prison population was 20 times greater than normal. Her study linked the XYY condition with subnormal IQ and tendencies for violent crime.[Jacobs et.al. 1965]. The Jacobs study led to sensationalized trials in which lawyers tried to exonerate the actions of the accused by blaming it on XYY syndrome. The Jacobs study led to sensationalized trials in which lawyers tried to exonerate the actions of the accused by blaming it on XYY syndrome. A belief that XYY males were genetically predisposed to criminal behaviour encouraged public leaders to call for genetic screening of newborns and the imposition of interventions to prevent criminal behaviors from occurring. A belief that XYY males were genetically predisposed to criminal behaviour encouraged public leaders to call for genetic screening of newborns and the imposition of interventions to prevent criminal behaviors from occurring.

41 Personal Determinants Type A behavior pattern Type A behavior pattern Type A’s (highly competitive, time-urgent, hostile) tend to be more aggressive Type A’s (highly competitive, time-urgent, hostile) tend to be more aggressive Hostile attributional style Hostile attributional style Tend to perceive malice in other’s ambiguous acts Tend to perceive malice in other’s ambiguous acts Narcissism (inflated self-esteem) Narcissism (inflated self-esteem) Tend to lash out if grandiosity is threatened Tend to lash out if grandiosity is threatened Gender (higher in males) Gender (higher in males) Males tend to use direct forms (push, shove, coercion) Males tend to use direct forms (push, shove, coercion) Females tend to use indirect (gossip, spread rumors) Females tend to use indirect (gossip, spread rumors) Note: Gender differences disappear under provocation

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43 What does Bandura say?

44 Is Aggression Learned? Does aggression pay? Are people reinforced for aggression? Does aggression pay? Are people reinforced for aggression? If so, operant conditional suggests that they are more likely to aggress in the future. If so, operant conditional suggests that they are more likely to aggress in the future. Social Learning Theory Social Learning Theory Vicarious reinforcement Vicarious reinforcement Bandura’s famous study with the Bobo doll. Bandura’s famous study with the Bobo doll.

45 Regional Differences in Aggression and Social Models Homicide rates for White southern males are substantially higher than for White northern males (especially in rural areas) Homicide rates for White southern males are substantially higher than for White northern males (especially in rural areas) However, they do not endorse violence in general, only as a tool for protection of property and in response to insults: “Culture of honor” based upon history as herding society However, they do not endorse violence in general, only as a tool for protection of property and in response to insults: “Culture of honor” based upon history as herding society Nisbett research on southerners reaction to being bumped and cursed at Nisbett research on southerners reaction to being bumped and cursed at More upset (cortisol increase), primed for aggression (testosterone increase), more likely to engage in aggression after the incident. More upset (cortisol increase), primed for aggression (testosterone increase), more likely to engage in aggression after the incident.

46 Frustration-Aggression Theory Dollard’s original definition: Frustration leads to (hostile) aggression. Dollard’s original definition: Frustration leads to (hostile) aggression. Frustration is defined as having one’s goal attainment blocked. Frustration is defined as having one’s goal attainment blocked. Is this always true? Is this always true? Berkowitz revises theory to state Berkowitz revises theory to state Frustration produces anger, which provides a readiness to agress – but does not guarantee it. Frustration produces anger, which provides a readiness to agress – but does not guarantee it. Important concepts include expectations and relative deprivation. Important concepts include expectations and relative deprivation. American society “creates” frustration. American society “creates” frustration.

47 Theories of Aggression Negative Affect Theory: Proposed by Leonard Berkowitz, it states that negative feelings and experiences are the main cause of anger and angry aggression. Sources of anger include: pain, frustration, loud noise, foul odors, crowding, sadness, and depression. The likelihood that an angry person will act aggressively depends on his or her interpretation of the motives of the people involved.

48 Situational Determinants Temperature (curvilinear relationship) Temperature (curvilinear relationship) As temp. increases, assaults increase, but only up to a point (around 90 degrees) As temp. increases, assaults increase, but only up to a point (around 90 degrees) Hotter years (and summers) increased rates of violent crimes, but not property or rape crimes Hotter years (and summers) increased rates of violent crimes, but not property or rape crimes Alcohol Alcohol Intoxicated participants behave more aggressively and respond to provocations more strongly Intoxicated participants behave more aggressively and respond to provocations more strongly Alcohol myopia—the more alcohol, the more accepting of sexual aggression to woman acting friendly (see Figure) Alcohol myopia—the more alcohol, the more accepting of sexual aggression to woman acting friendly (see Figure) Low aggressors became more aggressive when intoxicated, whereas high aggressors did not Low aggressors became more aggressive when intoxicated, whereas high aggressors did not

49 Heat and Aggression Heat and Aggression Heat and Aggression Heat and the Bean Ball Heat and the Bean Ball U-shaped Curve U-shaped Curve Reliable but not very strong pattern Reliable but not very strong pattern

50 Alcohol Strong correlation between Strong correlation between alcohol use and violent crimes alcohol use and violent crimes

51 Typical Experimental Design cp 25% No 25% Yes Did they actually drink alcohol NoYes Did they believe they were drinking alcohol

52 Findings Believe drinking alcohol and are drinking alcohol Most aggressive Are drinking alcohol Aggressive Believe drinking alcohol cp

53 Alcohol & Fear Alcohol intoxication is related to behavioral disinhibition Alcohol intoxication is related to behavioral disinhibition Many believe alcohol has anxiolytic effects Many believe alcohol has anxiolytic effects Some have theorized that alcohol-related aggression is due to a “fearlessness” Some have theorized that alcohol-related aggression is due to a “fearlessness” However, there was little evidence to support these theories However, there was little evidence to support these theories Use startle probe methodology to examine the effects of alcohol on emotion Use startle probe methodology to examine the effects of alcohol on emotion

54 Alcohol & Startle Have persons view pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral slides while intoxicated Have persons view pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral slides while intoxicated Compared to non-intoxicated participants overall startle magnitude was reduced Compared to non-intoxicated participants overall startle magnitude was reduced Startle modulation remained intact Startle modulation remained intact Alcohol seems to effect emotional processing through a general dampening of brain activity Alcohol seems to effect emotional processing through a general dampening of brain activity In contrast to Valium, which inhibits fear reactivity without effecting overall startle magnitude In contrast to Valium, which inhibits fear reactivity without effecting overall startle magnitude

55 Alcohol & Fear Alternative hypothesis: Alternative hypothesis: Perhaps alcohol inhibits fear indirectly through higher cognitive processes needed to evaluated fearful stimuli under complex situations Perhaps alcohol inhibits fear indirectly through higher cognitive processes needed to evaluated fearful stimuli under complex situations Fewer attentional resources Fewer attentional resources Diminished ability to use associate memory involved in processing complex situations, anticipate consequences, and select appropriate responses Diminished ability to use associate memory involved in processing complex situations, anticipate consequences, and select appropriate responses

56 Alcohol & Fear Experiment with sober and intoxicated individuals Experiment with sober and intoxicated individuals Present light cues indicating the possibility of electric shock Present light cues indicating the possibility of electric shock Green light = “safe” Green light = “safe” Red light = “threat”, might get a shock Red light = “threat”, might get a shock For half the trials present pleasant pictures as distracters For half the trials present pleasant pictures as distracters Measure startle response Measure startle response

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58 Alcohol & Fear Alcohol had an overall effect on startle magnitude Alcohol had an overall effect on startle magnitude In the distracting condition, alcohol also reduced fear reactivity In the distracting condition, alcohol also reduced fear reactivity Distracting condition placed the greatest cognitive demands on participant in processing of dual stimuli Distracting condition placed the greatest cognitive demands on participant in processing of dual stimuli

59 Alcohol & Fear Alcohol only reduced fear in when competing cognitive demands are present Alcohol only reduced fear in when competing cognitive demands are present Alcohol intoxication may serve as model for behavioral inhibition in complex or competing stimuli contexts Alcohol intoxication may serve as model for behavioral inhibition in complex or competing stimuli contexts Could serve as a model for Factor 2 processes Could serve as a model for Factor 2 processes

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61 Frustration and Aggression Dollard, Doob, Miller, Mowrer, & Sears Dollard, Doob, Miller, Mowrer, & Sears Frustration always leads to aggression Frustration always leads to aggression Frustration is a blocked goal Frustration is a blocked goal aggression is first targeted against agent that is blocking the goal aggression is first targeted against agent that is blocking the goal If that is not possible aggression is often displaced If that is not possible aggression is often displaced cotton prices and lynchings cotton prices and lynchings The Correlation Between Cotton Prices and Lynchings was r = -.67.

62 Causes of Aggression, Continued Alcohol Alcohol 75% of individuals arrested for crimes of violence were legally drunk at the time of their arrests. 75% of individuals arrested for crimes of violence were legally drunk at the time of their arrests. Experimental evidence implies that alcohol ingestion increases aggression Experimental evidence implies that alcohol ingestion increases aggression Interpretation, alcohol is a disinhibitor. It seems that under the influence of alcohol a person’s primary tendencies are revealed Interpretation, alcohol is a disinhibitor. It seems that under the influence of alcohol a person’s primary tendencies are revealed

63 Causes of Aggression, Continued Pain and Discomfort Pain and Discomfort If an animal experiences pain and can’t flee, violence follows If an animal experiences pain and can’t flee, violence follows Most research has been done on heat Most research has been done on heat Violent crime and aggression increases as temperature increases (e.g., baseball above 90°) Violent crime and aggression increases as temperature increases (e.g., baseball above 90°) Confound is increased interaction as it gets warmer Confound is increased interaction as it gets warmer However, lab research suggests that temperature is key component However, lab research suggests that temperature is key component

64 Color Research demonstrates that room color does not have much of an impact Research demonstrates that room color does not have much of an impact However, uniform color has been demonstrated to be related to an increase in penalties received (in both football and hockey) However, uniform color has been demonstrated to be related to an increase in penalties received (in both football and hockey) Question is: Does wearing a color make you more aggressive or are referees more likely to interpret ambiguous situations as aggressive? Question is: Does wearing a color make you more aggressive or are referees more likely to interpret ambiguous situations as aggressive?

65 Pornography and Violence Against Women Presidential commission on pornography concluded that explicit sexual material in and of itself did not contribute to sexual crimes, violence against women, or other anti- social acts. Presidential commission on pornography concluded that explicit sexual material in and of itself did not contribute to sexual crimes, violence against women, or other anti- social acts. But…. Violent pornography has been shown to increase acceptance of sexual violence (Malamuth and Donnerstein). But…. Violent pornography has been shown to increase acceptance of sexual violence (Malamuth and Donnerstein). Evidence that slasher movies have the same impact. Evidence that slasher movies have the same impact.

66 Social Learning and Mass Media TV is full of violent models. TV is full of violent models. 6 in 10 shows have violence. 6 in 10 shows have violence. By age 10 average child has viewed 8,000 murders on TV. By age 10 average child has viewed 8,000 murders on TV. Few consequences of violence on TV. Few consequences of violence on TV. High correlation between the amount of TV watched and viewer’s subsequent aggression – this data is correlational High correlation between the amount of TV watched and viewer’s subsequent aggression – this data is correlational Margaret Thomas demonstrated that viewing TV violence can numb people’s reactions when they are faced with real-life aggression Margaret Thomas demonstrated that viewing TV violence can numb people’s reactions when they are faced with real-life aggression

67 Why does media violence affect us? When we summarize the ideas in the research four themes arise: When we summarize the ideas in the research four themes arise: Seeing others being aggressive weakens our learned inhibitions against violence. Seeing others being aggressive weakens our learned inhibitions against violence. Learn techniques, imitate. Learn techniques, imitate. Primes anger. Makes us more aware of anger. Primes anger. Makes us more aware of anger. Desensitization to violence. Desensitization to violence.

68 Reducing Aggression What doesn’t work: What doesn’t work: Viewing violence Verbal expression of anger Displacing aggression to inanimate objects

69 Reducing Aggression What does work: What does work: Delay Distraction Relax Incompatible response cp

70 Theories of Emotion 1. Common Sense Theory

71 Theories of Emotion 2. James-Lange “…we feel sorry because we cry, angry because we strike, afraid because we tremble, and not that we cry, strike or tremble because we are sorry, angry or fearful.” -- William James

72 Facial Feedback Theory Smiling makes you feel happier Smiling makes you feel happier

73 Theories of Emotion 3. Cannon-Bard Theory

74 Schachter’s Experiment Schachter & Singer (1962) subjects were injected with adrenaline (or a placebo) subjects were injected with adrenaline (or a placebo) adrenaline  sweaty palms, increased heart rate, shakes adrenaline  sweaty palms, increased heart rate, shakes some subjects were told they would feel aroused; some were told nothing some subjects were told they would feel aroused; some were told nothing left subjects in a waiting room with a confederate left subjects in a waiting room with a confederate euphoria condition euphoria condition confederate played with a hula hoop and made paper airplanes confederate played with a hula hoop and made paper airplanes angry condition angry condition confederate asked obnoxious personal questions (e.g., “With how many men other than your father has your mother had extramarital relations: (a) 9” confederate asked obnoxious personal questions (e.g., “With how many men other than your father has your mother had extramarital relations: (a) 9” Stanley Schachter

75 Schachter’s Results

76 Theories of Emotion 4. Schachter’s Attribution Theory Degree of Arousal = INTENSITY of Emotion Cognitive appraisal = TYPE of Emotion This figure is simpler than Fig (which you can ignore) in your text

77 Misattribution of Emotion emotions can be attributed to the wrong source emotions can be attributed to the wrong source (Dutton & Aron, 1974) male subjects were asked to meet the experimenter on a bridge across the Capilano River in B.C. male subjects were asked to meet the experimenter on a bridge across the Capilano River in B.C. Group 1: Capilano suspension bridge Group 1: Capilano suspension bridge Group 2: sturdy modern bridge Group 2: sturdy modern bridge attractive female research assistant interviewed them in the middle of the bridge and gave her phone number attractive female research assistant interviewed them in the middle of the bridge and gave her phone number Men interviewed on the scary bridge were more likely to call her Men interviewed on the scary bridge were more likely to call her

78 An idea for your next date?

79 Emotion in the Brain

80 The Amygdala part of the limbic system (with the hippocampus and hypothalamus) part of the limbic system (with the hippocampus and hypothalamus) amygdala = “almond” amygdala = “almond” processes emotional significance of stimuli and generates immediate reactions processes emotional significance of stimuli and generates immediate reactions damage to amygdala  damage to amygdala  inability to recognize facial emotions inability to recognize facial emotions absence of fear absence of fear absence of conditioned fear response absence of conditioned fear response abnormal activation of amygdala  abnormal activation of amygdala  sudden violent rage sudden violent rage in fMRI studies, the amygdala is activated by scary stimuli (even if you’re not aware of them) in fMRI studies, the amygdala is activated by scary stimuli (even if you’re not aware of them)

81 Frontal Lobes Phineas Gage Phineas Gage “Gage is no longer Gage” “Gage is no longer Gage”

82 Frontal Lobotomies 1935: chimps who were neurotic before surgery became more relaxed after it 1935: chimps who were neurotic before surgery became more relaxed after it 1930s: Egaz Moniz begins frontal lobotomies in humans (and eventually wins Nobel Prize) 1930s: Egaz Moniz begins frontal lobotomies in humans (and eventually wins Nobel Prize) 1950s: psychosurgery in vogue; 40,000 frontal lobotomies in North America 1950s: psychosurgery in vogue; 40,000 frontal lobotomies in North America The story of Agnes (Kolb & Whishaw) The story of Agnes (Kolb & Whishaw) no outward signs of emotion no outward signs of emotion no facial expression no facial expression no feelings toward other people (but still liked her dog) no feelings toward other people (but still liked her dog) felt empty, zombie-like felt empty, zombie-like Other patients lose prosody = emotional component of speech Other patients lose prosody = emotional component of speech orbitofrontal cortex orbitofrontal cortex Patients with damage can remember info but don’t have emotions associated with it Patients with damage can remember info but don’t have emotions associated with it

83 Frontal patients show flat skin conductance to disturbing stimuli

84 Right hemisphere specialized for emotion Happy or sad? Happy or sad? Why? right hemisphere specialized for recognizing emotions

85 Do the two hemispheres have different personalities? left hemisphere activated by positive emotions left frontal damage  depressed sometimes overly catastrophic and weepy about injury diminished left hemisphere activation in depressed people right hemisphere activated by negative emotions right frontal damage  fewer negative emotions often not appropriately upset or concerned about injury

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