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4 Aggression 1 Chapter 4 - Aggression Topic 1 - Social psychological approaches to explaining aggression –Social psychological theories of aggression –Explanations.

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Presentation on theme: "4 Aggression 1 Chapter 4 - Aggression Topic 1 - Social psychological approaches to explaining aggression –Social psychological theories of aggression –Explanations."— Presentation transcript:

1 4 Aggression 1 Chapter 4 - Aggression Topic 1 - Social psychological approaches to explaining aggression –Social psychological theories of aggression –Explanations of institutional aggression Topic 2 - Biological explanations of aggression –The role of neural and hormonal mechanisms –The role of genetic factors Topic 3 - Aggression as an adaptive response –Evolutionary explanations of human aggression –Explanations of group display in humans

2 4 Aggression Topic 1 - Social Psychological Approaches to Explaining Aggression Social psychological theories of aggression Explanations of institutional aggression

3 4 Aggression 3 Social Psychological Explanations of Aggression Social Learning Theory Direct and vicarious experience –Learning by direct experience (operant conditioning) –Learning by vicarious experience (observational learning)

4 4 Aggression 4 Reinforcement The likelihood of a person behaving aggressively depends on –Previous experiences of aggressive behaviour –Reinforcement of past aggression –Likelihood that current aggression will be rewarded –Cognitive, social and environmental factors

5 4 Aggression 5 Research into Social Learning Theory ‘Bobo doll’ experiments Teaching effect (acquisition of behaviour) Motivational effect (reproduction/performance of behaviour)

6 4 Aggression 6 Social Learning Theory Explains inconsistencies in aggressive behaviour Explains cultural differences in aggressive behaviour Social learning or biology as primary causal agent? Evaluation

7 4 Aggression 7 Deindividuation Individuated and deindividuated behaviour Public and private self-awareness

8 4 Aggression 8 Research Related To Deindividuation The Stanford Prison experiment (Zimbardo et al. 1973) Deindividuation in mobs –The baiting crowd –The faceless crowd

9 4 Aggression 9 Deindividuation Deindividuation and pro-social behaviour The role of anonymity Social norms and behaviour The Zimbardo et al. prison study Deindividuation and football crowd violence Evaluation

10 4 Aggression 10 Explanations of Institutional Aggression Institutional aggression in prisons –The importation model –The deprivation model –The power of the situation and the effect of dehumanising labels

11 4 Aggression 11 Explanations of Institutional Aggression in Prisons Research support for the importation model Limitations of the importation model Research support for the deprivation model Limitations of the deprivation model Real life relevance Evaluation

12 4 Aggression 12 Institutional Aggression in Initiation Rituals Initiation rituals –Special rituals and requirements for new members of a group –Aim to create bond between members –Hazing – painful initiation rituals

13 4 Aggression 13 Explanations of Initiation Rituals Research support Why is hasing effective? Evaluation

14 4 Aggression 14 Psychological Approaches to Explaining Aggression 1.What is the difference between direct and vicarious reinforcement? 2.According to Social Learning Theory, the likelihood of a person behaving aggressively is determined by what four factors? 3.What conclusions can be drawn from the Bobo doll study concerning the imitation of aggression? 4.Explain two evaluative points concerning the social learning theory of aggression. 5.What is meant by ‘deindividuation’ in the context of aggression? What is the difference between ‘individuated’ and ‘deindividuated’ behaviour? Check Your Understanding

15 4 Aggression 15 Psychological Approaches to Explaining Aggression 6.What conclusions can be drawn from Zimbardo’s Stanford Prison Experiment concerning the causes of aggressive behaviour? 7.Explain two evaluative points concerning the deindividuation explanation of aggression. 8.Explain the difference between the importation and deprivation models of institutional aggression. 9.Explain two evaluative points concerning each of the importation and deprivation models of institutional aggression. 10.Outline what is meant by initiation rituals (including ‘hazing’) and provide one explanation for this phenomenon. 11.Explain two evaluative points concerning initiation rituals as a form of institutional aggression. Check Your Understanding

16 4 Aggression Topic 2 - Biological Explanations of Aggression Role of neural and hormonal mechanisms Role of genetic factors

17 4 Aggression 17 Neural and Hormonal Mechanisms in Aggression Neurotransmitters Hormones

18 4 Aggression 18 Neurotransmitters Chemical messengers that transmit nerve impulses –e.g. serotonin; dopamine Negative correlation between serotonin and aggression Positive correlation between dopamine and aggression

19 4 Aggression 19 Neural Mechanisms in Aggression Serotonin: alternative explanations Alcohol, serotonin and aggressive behaviour Research support Why it is difficult to establish a link between dopamine and aggression Evaluation

20 4 Aggression 20 Hormones Chemicals that regulate and control bodily functions –e.g. testosterone; cortisol Positive correlation between testosterone and aggression Negative correlation between cortisol and aggression

21 4 Aggression 21 Hormonal Mechanisms in Aggression Inconsistent evidence on testosterone and aggression The positive influence of testosterone Research support for cortisol link Lack of consistent research evidence Evaluation

22 4 Aggression 22 Role of Genetic Factors in Aggressive Behaviour Twin studies Adoption studies

23 4 Aggression 23 Twin Studies Support the role of genetic factors in aggression Aggressive behaviour more highly correlated in MZ than in DZ twins

24 4 Aggression 24 Adoption Studies Support the role of genetic factors in aggression –e.g. Danish study (Hutchings and Mednick, 1973)

25 4 Aggression 25 Twin and Adoption Studies The imperfect nature of twin studies Gender differences in heritability Problems with the interpretation of adoption studies Evaluation

26 4 Aggression 26 Genes for Aggression Candidate genes: DRD4 and DRD3 Candidate gene for MAOA

27 4 Aggression 27 Genes for Aggression Genes for aggression do not predict aggressive behaviour Positive implications of genetic research Gene-environment interaction Evaluation

28 4 Aggression 28 Biological Approaches to Explaining Aggression 1.Explain the main difference between the serotonin and dopamine explanations of aggression. 1.Explain two critical points concerning the serotonin and dopamine explanations of aggression. 1.Outline, in 50 words, the relationship between testosterone and aggression. Check Your Understanding

29 4 Aggression 29 Biological Approaches to Explaining Aggression 6.Explain three critical points concerning the relationship between hormones and aggression. 6.Outline the main conclusions that can be drawn from twin and adoption studies of aggression. 6.Explain three critical points concerning twin and adoption studies of aggression. Check Your Understanding

30 4 Aggression Topic 3 - Aggression as an Adaptive Response Evolutionary explanations of human aggression Explanations of group display in humans

31 4 Aggression 31 Evolutionary Explanations of Human Aggression Concept of natural selection –Selection of ‘adaptive’ characteristics Infidelity and jealousy –Cuckoldry and sexual jealousy –Mate retention and violence

32 4 Aggression 32 Infidelity and Jealousy as Explanations for Aggression Use of mate retention tactics Research on sexual coercion Practical applications of research Evaluation

33 4 Aggression 33 The Evolution of Murder Murder as an adaptive response –To prevent harm –To bolster reputation –To protect resources Predisposing factors for murder –Sexual jealousy –Lack of resources –Threats to male status

34 4 Aggression 34 The Evolutionary Explanation of Murder Comparative evidence The evolved goal hypothesis – an alternative explanation Evaluation

35 4 Aggression 35 Evolutionary Explanations of Aggression Limitations of explanation Cultural differences Evaluation

36 4 Aggression 36 Evolutionary Explanations of Group Display in Humans Examples of group display: Lynch mobs Self directed aggression during religious and cultural displays

37 4 Aggression 37 Adaptive Explanations for Lynch Mobs The power threat hypothesis Dehumanisation

38 4 Aggression 38 Adaptive Explanations for Lynch Mobs The Power threat hypothesis Evidence for dehumanisation The role of deindividuation Evaluation

39 4 Aggression 39 Adaptive Explanations for Religious/Cultural Displays Religious display and cooperative gains Costly signalling to deter free riders

40 4 Aggression 40 Adaptive Explanations of Religious/Cultural Displays Religious displays Cultural rituals The evolutionary approach Evaluation

41 4 Aggression 41 Aggression as an Adaptive Response 1.Give three examples of mate retention strategies commonly used by human males. 2.Explain the relationship between cuckoldry, infidelity and sexual jealousy. 3.Explain two critical points concerning the infidelity/sexual jealousy explanation of aggression. 4.Give two reasons why murder might be an evolutionary adaptation. 5.Outline two situations in which murder has been shown to be an adaptive behaviour. Check Your Understanding

42 4 Aggression 42 Aggression as an Adaptive Response 6.Explain two critical points concerning the ‘murder as an adaptive behaviour’ explanation. 7.Outline two explanations of the behaviour of lynch mobs being an adaptive response. 8.Explain two critical points concerning the behaviour of lynch mobs. 9.What is meant by ‘costly signaling theory’ in the context of religious displays? 10.Explain two evaluative points concerning the ‘costly signaling theory’ of religious displays. Check Your Understanding


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