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Social Psychology by Tom Gilovich, Dacher Keltner, and Richard Nisbett

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1 Social Psychology by Tom Gilovich, Dacher Keltner, and Richard Nisbett
Chapter 13: Aggression Social Psychology by Tom Gilovich, Dacher Keltner, and Richard Nisbett

2 Aggression Hostile aggression - behavior intended to harm another, either physically or psychologically, and motivated by feelings of anger and hostility Instrumental aggression - behavior intended to harm another in the service of motives other than pure hostility (for example, to attract attention, acquire wealth, and to advance political and ideological causes)

3 Modern Theory of Aggression
Social Determinants Personal Determinants Frustration Provocation Exposure to aggressive models Cues associated with aggression Causes of discomfort/negative affect High irritability Beliefs about aggression Proaggression values Type A behavior pattern Hostile attribution bias Arousal Affective States Aggressive Cognitions Aggression

4 Personal Determinants
Type A behavior pattern Hostile attributional style Narcissism (inflated self-esteem) Gender (higher in males when not provoked) males tend to use direct forms (push, shove, insult) females tend to use indirect (gossip, spread rumors) Next

5 Personal Determinants
Biological Instinct theory - innate (unlearned) behavior pattern Freud- redirecting the “death instinct” (thanatos) to others Lorenz- inherited “fighting instinct” developed through the course of evolution (strongest survive) Neural Influences Genetic Influences Blood Chemistry high testosterone linked to higher aggression and less helping low levels of serotonin inhibit ability to restrain aggressive urges

6 Social Determinants frustration
elicits aggression esp. when cause is unjustified direct provocation (physical or verbal) exposure to media violence primes aggressive thoughts; desensitizes viewers heightened arousal (provocation, exercise) arousal in one situation can persist and intensify reactions in another, unrelated situation

7 Frustration-Aggression Theory
Direct Outward aggression Instigation to aggress Indirect Frustration (Goal) Inward aggression (e.g., suicide) Other additional responses (e.g., withdrawal) Back

8 Bandura, Ross, & Ross Subjects were exposed to either aggressive or nonaggressive models Nonaggressive model assembled tinker toys Aggressive model hit Bobo doll Subject then spent 20 mins alone in room with various toys including Bobo. What did it look like?

9 Measuring Human Aggression in the Laboratory
Buss Technique (similar to Milgram’s) Participants (“teacher”) told to shock a “learner” each time they made an error on a simple learning task Note: teachers chose how strong the shocks were Competitive Reaction Time task (Taylor et al.) Participants compete with “opponent” on reaction-time trials. After losing a trial, they receive shock levels ranging in intensity from very mild to painful. After winning a trial, they pick shock level to administer to opponent

10 Chermack, Berman, & Taylor
Subjects competed against “opponent” in reaction time game After each trial, loser received a shock 2 conditions Low provocation - shocks stayed at setting #2 High provocation - shocks gradually increased from 2 to 9 Back

11 Excitation Transfer Theory
Aggression is increased Arousal and irritation attributed to delay at gate Meeting your future in-laws Heightened arousal Residual arousal Frustration (delay at gate) Aggression is not increased Arousal and irritation are attributed mainly to “meeting the parents” Back

12 Situational Determinants
high temperatures hotter years (and summers) increased rates of violent crimes, but not property or rape crimes

13 Situational Determinants
alcohol intoxicated participants behave more aggressively and respond to provocations more strongly low aggressors became more aggressive when intoxicated, whereas high aggressors did not

14 Situational Determinants

15 Controlling Aggression
Catharsis (“blowing off a little steam”) does not reduce aggression Punishment must be prompt, strong, and justified Exposure to nonaggressive models place prosocial models in violent situations

16 Controlling Aggression (con’t)
Cognitive interventions apologizing can be effective engage in activities that distract attention away from causes of anger Teach social skills better communication Induce incompatible responses humor

17 Study Smarter: Student Website
Chapter Reviews Diagnostic Quizzes Vocabulary Flashcards Apply It! Exercises

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