Emotions and Mood Emotions, often called feelings, include experiences such as love, hate, anger, trust, joy, panic, fear, and grief. Emotions are related to, but different from, mood. Emotions are specific reactions to a particular event that are usually of fairly short duration. Mood is a more general feeling such as happiness, sadness, frustration, contentment, or anxiety that lasts for a longer time.
James-Lange Theory of Emotion. We feel emotion because of biological changes caused by stress. The body changes and then our mind recognizes the feeling. So body feels it first…then our mind recognizes the feeling.
Cannon-Bard Theory of Emotion Say James-Lange theory is full of crap. How can that be true if similar physiological changes correspond with drastically different emotional states. They believe that the thalamus send a message to autonomic nervous system to feel physiological arousal and also to brain to feel emotion. One does not cause the other.
Discuss to what extent cognitive and biological factors interact with emotion. You will answer this question using two currently used theories of emotion 1.Two-Factor Theory 2.Appraisal Theory
1.Two-Factor Theory of Emotion (TFT) Schachter and Singer (1962) Emotion depends on two factors… 1.Physiological arousal 2.Cognitive interpretation of that arousal (their mind labels it). Discuss to what extent cognitive and biological factors interact with emotion.
Example…. If a person finds herself near an angry mob of people when she is physiologically aroused, she might label that arousal “anger.” On the other hand, if she experiences the same pattern of physiological arousal at a music concert, she might label the arousal “excitement.” Discuss to what extent cognitive and biological factors interact with emotion.
Two-Factor Theory of Emotion (TFT) Schachter and Singer (1962) While the strength of the physiological arousal determines the intensity of the emotional experience, its interpretation determines which particular emotion is experienced. Discuss to what extent cognitive and biological factors interact with emotion.
Aron and Dutton (1974) Misattribution of Emotion Their experiment helped proved TFT. Procedure: Had male participants walk across two different style bridges (scary and stable). Discuss to what extent cognitive and biological factors interact with emotion.
Aron and Dutton (1974) Misattribution of Emotion At the end of each bridge an attractive female experimenter met the participants. Half the participants were approached immediately and half 5 minutes after they crossed. They were given a Thematic Apperception Test. Then the girl gave them her number and asked to call if they had questions. Discuss to what extent cognitive and biological factors interact with emotion.
TAT Test Thematic Apperception Test Giving the subject a picture that is ambiguous (can have several meanings) and ask them what is occurring. Their answers reveal the manifest content (storyline of their thoughts/dreams). They can then discover the Latent Content (underlying meaning of their thoughts/dreams).
Aron and Dutton (1974) Misattribution of Emotion Results For the men who walked across the scary bridge and were interviewed immediately: 1.Men walking across the scary bridge were more likely to have a manifest content that was sexual in nature (when talking to the woman). 2.The men who walked across the scary bridge were most likely to call the woman, asking for a date. Discuss to what extent cognitive and biological factors interact with emotion.
Aron and Dutton (1974) Misattribution of Emotion The men who walked across the safe bridge or were interviewed 5 minutes after they crossed the scary bridge were much less likely to talk sexually about the TAT or call the woman interviewer.
Aron and Dutton (1974) Misattribution of Emotion Discussion This was most likely due to the arousal they felt from walking across the scary bridge. They had misattributed their arousal from the bridge towards the woman, making her seem more attractive. Kind of like emotional beer goggles
Aron and Dutton (1974) Misattribution of Emotion none of the participants attributed their feelings to the bridge causing arousal, therefore causing the experimenter to become more attractive. ############### F#############
2.Appraisal Theory of Emotion Lazarus 1975 or 1982 or 1991 A theory of emotion which implicates that people's personal interpretations of an event determining their emotional reaction. Event ==> thinking ==> Simultaneous arousal and emotion. So the way you interpret a situation (cognitive) can effect your physiological response (biology)
Appraisal Theory of Emotion Lazarus 1975 or 1982 or 1991 hint: replace the term appraisal with evaluation Two ways that we think about it…. 1.Primary Appraisal: we consider how the situation affects our personal well-being. 2.Secondary Appraisal: we consider how we might cope with the situation (or who is to blame)
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Speisman et al (1964) Experimental manipulation of emotions through cognitive appraisal Aim To investigate the extent in which manipulation of cognitive appraisal could influence emotional experience. In other words, if they change the way you look at an experience, will that change your emotion towards it.
Speisman et al (1964) Procedure: In this laboratory experiment, participants saw anxiety provoking films. Basically, a film of an aborigine initiation ceremony where adolescent boys were subjected to unpleasant genital cutting.
Speisman et al (1964) The film was shown with three different soundtracks intended to manipulate emotional reactions.
Speisman et al (1964) The “trauma condition” has a soundtrack with emphasis on mutilation and pain.
Speisman et al (1964) The “intellectual” condition had a soundtrack that gave an anthropological interpretation of the initiation ceremony.
Speisman et al (1964) The “denial condition” showed adolescents as being willing and happy in the ceremony.
Speisman et al (1964) During each viewing of the film various objective physiological measures were taken, such as heart rate and galvanic skin response.
Speisman et al (1964) Results: Participants in the “trauma condition” showed much higher physiological measures of stress than participants in the other two conditions. How does this support appraisal theory or emotion?
Speisman et al (1964) Evaluation In lab…so it was controlled. Ecological validity?