3 A. Religious Reformation Papacy – St. Peter’s BasilicaIndulgencesMartin Luther (1483 – 1546)Salvation from faith in Jesus Christ – not worksRejection of papal authority – Protestant ReformationBible, printing pressGerman support/nationalism
4 What do you believe was the motivation for Frederick the Wise to support Martin Luther? (Did religion or politics motivate his actions?)
5 Religious Reformation Continued… John Calvin (1509 – 1564)Faith not enough, salvation a gift from God – “predestined”Organization, lifestyleReligious movements connected to political circumstancesTrent – Catholic ReformationJesuitsWars of Religion
6 How was the Catholic campaign against Protestantism similar and different from other campaigns against heretics and non-Christians?
7 B. Traditional Thinking and Witch - Hunts Folklore/magicChristian teachings – miracles, devils, etc.Natural events – supernatural causesLisbon – 1755Accused women and their fates…Reformation’s focus on the DevilFear of independent womenWomen’s sphere of influence
8 Why was there an increase in witch hunts in spite of new scientific and academic advances?
10 C. The Scientific Revolution Influence of Greco – Roman sources/BibleAristotle – four elements and physicsPythagorasScientific Revolution – observationNicholas Copernicus (1473 – 1543) – heliocentric universe (Nasir al-Din)Tycho Braches and Johannes Kepler – elliptical orbits
11 The Scientific Revolution Continued… Galileo Galilei (1564 – 1642) – telescopeChallenge to religious/traditional beliefsGalileo’s view of God’s truthJesuits, Roman Inquisition, The Starry MessengerRobert Boyle – chemistryIsaac Newton (1642 – 1727) – common physics, law of gravityHostility of the church, challenges to authority
12 Which scientist was most important to the Scientific Revolution and why?
13 D. The Early Enlightenment Laws of human behavior – EnlightenmentResistance to Enlightenment thinkersReaction against religious violenceAppreciation of non – Western examples of governance/behaviorOptimistic about future of human behavior/institutions
15 A. The BourgeoisieMerchant ships – fluit, “East Indiaman” Dutch banks – investments, capitalCartographyPopulation growth in London, ParisBourgeoisie – work/lifestyleNetherlands – textile industry, used foreign raw materials, publishing endeavorsAmsterdam – commercial fleets dominated overseas trade during 1600s
16 The Bourgeoisie continued… Family connections/merchant colonies in European citiesAlliances with monarchiesJoint – stock companiesStock exchangesCanalsBritish/Dutch competition – English supremacyGentry – alliances with old nobility; exemption from taxes
17 Most of the Dutch were Calvinists Most of the Dutch were Calvinists. What is the connection that is made between their capitalism and religion?
18 B. Peasants and Laborers Decline of serfdom/slavery in Western Europe – relation to the AmericasChallenges to peasants – Little Ice AgeImpact of new crops from Americas by 1700Exports of wheatDeforestation – coke (1709), impact on peasantsSpinning yarnMigration to cities - no relief from povertyRebellions of the poor in Early Modern Europe – resentment against privileged/landowning classes, exemption from taxation
19 Why do you believe uprisings of the poor do not happen more often?
20 C. Women and the FamilyWomen lower than men but mitigated by class/wealthImportance of a good marriageChoice in marriage/reasons for ageAbandoned children/rapeSolid education for sons – languages, businessExclusion/participation of women in Renaissance, Scientific Rev., Enlightenment
21 What avenues offered women the most independence during the early modern period? What was the cost of that independence?
23 A. State Development Political diversity Holy Roman Empire – German Charles V – Habsburg – united Christian Europe vs. OttomansFrench/German oppositionGerman Wars of Religion and the Peace of Augsburg (1555)France, Spain, England strengthening central authority
25 B. Religious PoliciesSpain/France – defended Catholicism (Spanish Inquisition)French Wars of Religion – Henry of Navarre, Edict of NantesEngland – Henry VIII, Catherine of Aragon, support of Parliament to make English monarch head of Church of EnglandDisbanding of monasteries/church landsNot as many reforms as English Puritans wanted
26 C. Monarchies in England and France England – Charles I disbanded Parliament, needed help to gather taxes, Parliament wanted guarantees of rights – English Civil War in 1642Charles I executed, Oliver Cromwell instated, eventually Charles II restoredJames II a Catholic threatQueen Mary and William of Orange – Glorious Revolution of 1688English Bill of Rights 1689
27 Monarchies in England and France Continued… Estates GeneralMonarchs sold appointments/efficient tax collectionLouis XIV – Palace of Versailles, kept political intrigues out of ParisFrench model widely admiredJohn Lock (1632 – 1704) – disputed divine right of monarchs, authority from consent of the governed
28 D. Warfare and Diplomacy Warfare common in Early Modern periodExpensive/destructiveThirty Years War (1618 – 1648)European armed forces much stronger – larger armies, centralized command structures, training, fortificationsStalemates – navyHenry VIII – investment in navy, influence of the Dutch, creation of Great BritainPrevented Spain/France from unitingBalance of power
30 E. Paying the PiperPost 1600 – states needed more revenue for militariesAlliances with rising commercial elite – needed space AND supportSpanish wars, religious expulsions, and aristocratic exemption from taxesAmerican gold/silver – inflationNetherlands revolted against Spanish policies – 1648 achieved full independence
31 Paying the Piper Continued… United Netherlands decentralized – excelled in trade, commercial interestsRise of the English navy/merchant shipsEnglish “financial revolution” – taxed aristocracy, collected taxes directly, central bankFrance – some adjustments but stifled by aristocracy