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Transformations in Europe,

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Transformations in Europe, I. Culture and Ideas.

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Presentation on theme: "Transformations in Europe,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Transformations in Europe, 1500 - 1750

2 I. Culture and Ideas

3 A. Religious Reformation
Papacy – St. Peter’s Basilica Indulgences Martin Luther (1483 – 1546) Salvation from faith in Jesus Christ – not works Rejection of papal authority – Protestant Reformation Bible, printing press German support/nationalism

4 What do you believe was the motivation for Frederick the Wise to support Martin Luther? (Did religion or politics motivate his actions?)

5 Religious Reformation Continued…
John Calvin (1509 – 1564) Faith not enough, salvation a gift from God – “predestined” Organization, lifestyle Religious movements connected to political circumstances Trent – Catholic Reformation Jesuits Wars of Religion

6 How was the Catholic campaign against Protestantism similar and different from other campaigns against heretics and non-Christians?

7 B. Traditional Thinking and Witch - Hunts
Folklore/magic Christian teachings – miracles, devils, etc. Natural events – supernatural causes Lisbon – 1755 Accused women and their fates… Reformation’s focus on the Devil Fear of independent women Women’s sphere of influence

8 Why was there an increase in witch hunts in spite of new scientific and academic advances?


10 C. The Scientific Revolution
Influence of Greco – Roman sources/Bible Aristotle – four elements and physics Pythagoras Scientific Revolution – observation Nicholas Copernicus (1473 – 1543) – heliocentric universe (Nasir al-Din) Tycho Braches and Johannes Kepler – elliptical orbits

11 The Scientific Revolution Continued…
Galileo Galilei (1564 – 1642) – telescope Challenge to religious/traditional beliefs Galileo’s view of God’s truth Jesuits, Roman Inquisition, The Starry Messenger Robert Boyle – chemistry Isaac Newton (1642 – 1727) – common physics, law of gravity Hostility of the church, challenges to authority

12 Which scientist was most important to the Scientific Revolution and why?

13 D. The Early Enlightenment
Laws of human behavior – Enlightenment Resistance to Enlightenment thinkers Reaction against religious violence Appreciation of non – Western examples of governance/behavior Optimistic about future of human behavior/institutions

14 II. Social and Economic Life

15 A. The Bourgeoisie Merchant ships – fluit, “East Indiaman” Dutch banks – investments, capital Cartography Population growth in London, Paris Bourgeoisie – work/lifestyle Netherlands – textile industry, used foreign raw materials, publishing endeavors Amsterdam – commercial fleets dominated overseas trade during 1600s

16 The Bourgeoisie continued…
Family connections/merchant colonies in European cities Alliances with monarchies Joint – stock companies Stock exchanges Canals British/Dutch competition – English supremacy Gentry – alliances with old nobility; exemption from taxes

17 Most of the Dutch were Calvinists
Most of the Dutch were Calvinists. What is the connection that is made between their capitalism and religion?

18 B. Peasants and Laborers
Decline of serfdom/slavery in Western Europe – relation to the Americas Challenges to peasants – Little Ice Age Impact of new crops from Americas by 1700 Exports of wheat Deforestation – coke (1709), impact on peasants Spinning yarn Migration to cities - no relief from poverty Rebellions of the poor in Early Modern Europe – resentment against privileged/landowning classes, exemption from taxation

19 Why do you believe uprisings of the poor do not happen more often?

20 C. Women and the Family Women lower than men but mitigated by class/wealth Importance of a good marriage Choice in marriage/reasons for age Abandoned children/rape Solid education for sons – languages, business Exclusion/participation of women in Renaissance, Scientific Rev., Enlightenment

21 What avenues offered women the most independence during the early modern period? What was the cost of that independence?

22 III. Political Innovations

23 A. State Development Political diversity Holy Roman Empire – German
Charles V – Habsburg – united Christian Europe vs. Ottomans French/German opposition German Wars of Religion and the Peace of Augsburg (1555) France, Spain, England strengthening central authority


25 B. Religious Policies Spain/France – defended Catholicism (Spanish Inquisition) French Wars of Religion – Henry of Navarre, Edict of Nantes England – Henry VIII, Catherine of Aragon, support of Parliament to make English monarch head of Church of England Disbanding of monasteries/church lands Not as many reforms as English Puritans wanted

26 C. Monarchies in England and France
England – Charles I disbanded Parliament, needed help to gather taxes, Parliament wanted guarantees of rights – English Civil War in 1642 Charles I executed, Oliver Cromwell instated, eventually Charles II restored James II a Catholic threat Queen Mary and William of Orange – Glorious Revolution of 1688 English Bill of Rights 1689

27 Monarchies in England and France Continued…
Estates General Monarchs sold appointments/efficient tax collection Louis XIV – Palace of Versailles, kept political intrigues out of Paris French model widely admired John Lock (1632 – 1704) – disputed divine right of monarchs, authority from consent of the governed

28 D. Warfare and Diplomacy
Warfare common in Early Modern period Expensive/destructive Thirty Years War (1618 – 1648) European armed forces much stronger – larger armies, centralized command structures, training, fortifications Stalemates – navy Henry VIII – investment in navy, influence of the Dutch, creation of Great Britain Prevented Spain/France from uniting Balance of power


30 E. Paying the Piper Post 1600 – states needed more revenue for militaries Alliances with rising commercial elite – needed space AND support Spanish wars, religious expulsions, and aristocratic exemption from taxes American gold/silver – inflation Netherlands revolted against Spanish policies – 1648 achieved full independence

31 Paying the Piper Continued…
United Netherlands decentralized – excelled in trade, commercial interests Rise of the English navy/merchant ships English “financial revolution” – taxed aristocracy, collected taxes directly, central bank France – some adjustments but stifled by aristocracy


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