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The Bonds of Empire Chapter 4. The Restoration ► After Oliver Cromwell died (leader of the Parliamentarians) the Stuart Monarchy, under Charles II, returns.

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Presentation on theme: "The Bonds of Empire Chapter 4. The Restoration ► After Oliver Cromwell died (leader of the Parliamentarians) the Stuart Monarchy, under Charles II, returns."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Bonds of Empire Chapter 4

2 The Restoration ► After Oliver Cromwell died (leader of the Parliamentarians) the Stuart Monarchy, under Charles II, returns to the throne in ~Oliver Cromwell

3 Royal “centralization” ► 1686, Dominion of New England created. ► Boston was capital. ► 1688, New Jersey and New York added. ~Seal of Dominion of New England

4 Expansion ► Acquired Carolinas, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware. ► By 1729, all but Pennsylvania were under direct royal control.

5 William Penn ► 1681, Charles II paid debt to Penn and made him proprietor of last unallocated tract of American territory. ► Established “holy experiment” based on teachings of George Fox (Quakerism). Also established religious freedom.

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7 Navigation Acts ► Series of laws, beginning in 1660 that provided mutual commercial advantages for Britain and its colonies. ► Limited competition. ► Enumerated goods, such as rum, had to flow from colonies directly to England.

8 Sir Edmund Andros ► Royal Governor of Dominion of New England in ► Limited towns to single annual meeting. ► Strictly enforced religious toleration and Navigation Acts. ► Disliked by colonists, arrested after Glorious Revolution, sent back to England.

9 Glorious Revolution ► : James II, who was Catholic, disliked by English Protestants. ► James’ daughter, Mary, and her husband William of Orange (Protestant Netherlands) were encouraged to intervene and become “limited monarchs” ► November 1688, William led small Dutch army to England, James fled to France.

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11 Andros arrested in Boston and sent back to England

12 Dominion Dismantled ► Dominion of New England was dismantled and Conn. and Rhode Island could choose own governors. ► Massachusetts, a place of early dissension, could not however. ► Proposed religious toleration.

13 New York Uprising ► Militia captain, Jacob Leisler, seized control of New York from after Glorious Revolution. ► Sought to establish government of direct popular representation, which Anglican merchants and aristocrats disagreed with. ► New governor, dispatched by King William III, met resistance from Leisler. ► Leisler tried, hanged, and beheaded in May 1691.

14 Beginnings of the 18 th Century Growth of America

15 Spain v. France v. British ► Spain and France remained societies in which most wealth was controlled by the monarch, the nobility, and the church. ► England was transitioning to mercantile- commercial economy. ► Colonial living standards rose dramatically from

16 Middle Passage

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18 African Slavery ► Only 5% of slaves went to British North America. ► A majority went to West Indies and Brazil to help produce sugar.

19 Stono Rebellion (1739) ► As black population grew, racial tensions mounted. ► Stono Slave Rebellion in South Carolina led to harsher slave code.

20 Georgia ► Led by James Oglethorpe (1733), used to shield South Carolina from Spanish attack from Florida. ► Haven for debtors, and meant to be free of slavery and alcohol but neither worked.

21 Great Awakening (1739) ► Revivalists highlighted sinfulness of humans, need for immediate repentance. ► Human sinfulness, “slippery slope” to hell. ► John Edwards “Sinners in the Hands…”, revival in Mass. ► George Whitefield: Masterful orator that led a tour throughout the colonies to preach revivalist ideals.

22 ~Whitefield excites another crowd.

23 Enlightened Ideals ► percent of colonists were literate. ► 90 percent of men and 40 percent of women in New England were literate. ► Sir Isaac Newton (1687) explained how gravitation ruled the universe. ► John Locke writes Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1690). ► Deism: God created perfect universe; natural laws would conduct outcomes, not God’s hand.

24 Ben Franklin ► Born in Boston, 1706 ► Moved to Phila. at age 17, becomes prominent printer. ► Publishes Poor Richard’s Almanack ► Begins American Philosophical Society ► Forms Junto, social club. ► Enlightened ideals personified.


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