Presentation on theme: "The Bonds of Empire Chapter 4. The Restoration ► After Oliver Cromwell died (leader of the Parliamentarians) the Stuart Monarchy, under Charles II, returns."— Presentation transcript:
The Restoration ► After Oliver Cromwell died (leader of the Parliamentarians) the Stuart Monarchy, under Charles II, returns to the throne in 1660. ~Oliver Cromwell
Royal “centralization” ► 1686, Dominion of New England created. ► Boston was capital. ► 1688, New Jersey and New York added. ~Seal of Dominion of New England
Expansion ► Acquired Carolinas, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware. ► By 1729, all but Pennsylvania were under direct royal control.
William Penn ► 1681, Charles II paid debt to Penn and made him proprietor of last unallocated tract of American territory. ► Established “holy experiment” based on teachings of George Fox (Quakerism). Also established religious freedom.
Navigation Acts ► Series of laws, beginning in 1660 that provided mutual commercial advantages for Britain and its colonies. ► Limited competition. ► Enumerated goods, such as rum, had to flow from colonies directly to England.
Sir Edmund Andros ► Royal Governor of Dominion of New England in 1688. ► Limited towns to single annual meeting. ► Strictly enforced religious toleration and Navigation Acts. ► Disliked by colonists, arrested after Glorious Revolution, sent back to England.
Glorious Revolution ► 1688-1689: James II, who was Catholic, disliked by English Protestants. ► James’ daughter, Mary, and her husband William of Orange (Protestant Netherlands) were encouraged to intervene and become “limited monarchs” ► November 1688, William led small Dutch army to England, James fled to France.
Andros arrested in Boston and sent back to England
Dominion Dismantled ► Dominion of New England was dismantled and Conn. and Rhode Island could choose own governors. ► Massachusetts, a place of early dissension, could not however. ► Proposed religious toleration.
New York Uprising ► Militia captain, Jacob Leisler, seized control of New York from 1689-1691 after Glorious Revolution. ► Sought to establish government of direct popular representation, which Anglican merchants and aristocrats disagreed with. ► New governor, dispatched by King William III, met resistance from Leisler. ► Leisler tried, hanged, and beheaded in May 1691.
Beginnings of the 18 th Century Growth of America
Spain v. France v. British ► Spain and France remained societies in which most wealth was controlled by the monarch, the nobility, and the church. ► England was transitioning to mercantile- commercial economy. ► Colonial living standards rose dramatically from 1700-1770.
African Slavery ► Only 5% of slaves went to British North America. ► A majority went to West Indies and Brazil to help produce sugar.
Stono Rebellion (1739) ► As black population grew, racial tensions mounted. ► Stono Slave Rebellion in South Carolina led to harsher slave code.
Georgia ► Led by James Oglethorpe (1733), used to shield South Carolina from Spanish attack from Florida. ► Haven for debtors, and meant to be free of slavery and alcohol but neither worked.
Great Awakening (1739) ► Revivalists highlighted sinfulness of humans, need for immediate repentance. ► Human sinfulness, “slippery slope” to hell. ► John Edwards “Sinners in the Hands…”, revival in Mass. ► George Whitefield: Masterful orator that led a tour throughout the colonies to preach revivalist ideals.
Enlightened Ideals ► 35-50 percent of colonists were literate. ► 90 percent of men and 40 percent of women in New England were literate. ► Sir Isaac Newton (1687) explained how gravitation ruled the universe. ► John Locke writes Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1690). ► Deism: God created perfect universe; natural laws would conduct outcomes, not God’s hand.
Ben Franklin ► Born in Boston, 1706 ► Moved to Phila. at age 17, becomes prominent printer. ► Publishes Poor Richard’s Almanack ► Begins American Philosophical Society ► Forms Junto, social club. ► Enlightened ideals personified.