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The Colonies Develop Chapter 4.

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Presentation on theme: "The Colonies Develop Chapter 4."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Colonies Develop Chapter 4

2 I. New England: Commerce (Trade) and Religion
A. As the colonies developed  4 Regions 1. New England, Middle, Southern, Backcountry B. Farms and towns 1. Rocky soil & harsh winters subsistence farming (enough for your family) 2. Farms surrounded a meeting house and a common (shared land) C. Harvesting the Sea 1. Atlantic Ocean  fishing & whaling 2. Forests  lumber & shipbuilding

3 I. New England: Commerce (Trade) and Religion
D. The Navigation Acts 1. To protect mercantilism England passed laws 2. These laws led to smuggling (illegal trading) E. Atlantic Trade 1. Traded with other colonies and Europe 2. Traded slaves with Africa and the West Indies a. Triangular Trade b. Few slaves (2%) and the most free blacks

4 I. New England: Commerce (Trade) and Religion
F. King Philip’s War Natives attacked to stop expansion G. Changes in Puritan Society 1. Economic success, new immigrants/religions, and changes in voting weakened Puritanism 2. Salem Witchcraft Trials – 20 “witches” killed 3. Puritan values still continued

5 II. The Southern Colonies: Plantation and Slavery
A. The Plantation Economy 1. Cash crops – sold for profit 2. Self-sufficient  few cities in the South 3. Planter class – wealthy, powerful plantation owners 4. Bacon’s Rebellion – poorer settlers rose up against the governor & burned Jamestown

6 II. The Southern Colonies: Plantation and Slavery
B. The Search for Cheap Labor 1. Indentured servants began leaving, natives died or escaped  the South turned to enslaved Africans 2. Slave life was hard a. overseers, long hours, harsh punishments, no freedom, poor housing 3. Preserved as much culture as they could 4. By 1750, Southern population was 40% slaves

7 II. The Southern Colonies: Plantation and Slavery
C. Expansion of Plantations Brings Resistance 1. Because of slavery, plantations expanded west 2. Slaves resisted without violence 3. Slaves also resisted violently a. Stono Rebellion – slave uprising in South Carolina in 1739  tougher slave codes (rules)

8 II. The Southern Colonies: Plantation and Slavery
D. Different economies 1. In the Southern colonies, wealth and power concentrated in a few wealthy families (planters) 2. In the New England & Middle colonies, wealth was more spread out

9 III. The Middle Colonies: Farms and Cities
A. A Prosperous Region 1. Good climate & soil  “Breadbasket” 2. Growing cities – Philadelphia & New York B. African Americans in the Cities – 7% of Middle Colonies enslaved 2. New York City – slaves and free blacks 3. Quakers condemned slavery (said it was wrong) a. they began the anti-slavery movement

10 III. The Middle Colonies: Farms and Cities
C. Diversity and Tolerance 1. Germans 2nd largest group in Middle Colonies (English still 1st) a. escaped religious persecution b. skilled farmers and craftsman 2. Quakers and Dutch were some of the most tolerant groups in the colonies

11 IV. The Backcountry A. Settling the Backcountry
1. Ran along the Appalachian Mountains a. In the South – fall line to the piedmont 2. Early settlers traded (fur) with natives 3. Later settlers fought natives for land

12 IV. The Backcountry B. The Scots-Irish Arrive
1. Escaped war and persecution in England, Scotland, and Ireland 2. Left a tough life for a new tough life 3. Came over in clans (large family groups) a. banded together for protection 4. Started in Western PA, then spread 5. Brought a culture of loyalty and “rugged individualism” 6. Regionalism developed a – , by 1750 – colonists

13 IV. The Backcountry C. Beyond the Frontier
1. English, French, Spanish and natives began fighting more over western lands 2. Colonies began to “team up” because of these fights  began an American identity

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