Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 3 Crisis and Change 1675 – 1720 “I tremble for my country when I reflect that God is just... his justice cannot sleep forever.” Thomas Jefferson."— Presentation transcript:
CHAPTER 3 Crisis and Change 1675 – 1720 “I tremble for my country when I reflect that God is just... his justice cannot sleep forever.” Thomas Jefferson [early 1800s]
Historiography of Slavery Carter G. Woodson, Journal of Negro History (beginning in 1920s) W.E.B. Du Bois, Black Reconstruction in America (1935) Ulrich B. Phillips, American Negro Slavery (1918), Life and Labor in the Old South (1929) Herbert Aptheker, American Negro Slave Revolts (1943) John Hope Franklin, From Slavery To Freedom (1947) Kenneth Stampp, The Peculiar Institution (1956) Alfred Conrad & John Meyer, The Economics of Slavery in the Antebellum South (Journal of Political Economy, 1958) Stanley Elkins, Slavery: A Problem in American Institutional and Intellectual Life (1959) [“Sambo steriotype & Nazi genocide” Lerone Bennett, Jr., Before the Mayflower John W. Blassingame, The Slave Community (1972)
Robert W. Fogel & Stanley Engermann, Time On The Cross: The Economics of American Slavery (1974) Eugene Genovese, The Political Economy of Slavery (1965); Roll, Jordan, Roll (1974) Keith Aufhauser, Slavery and Technological Change (Journal of Economic History, 1974) Herbert Gutman, The Black Family in Slavery and Freedom (1976) Don Fehrenbacher, The Dred Scott Case (1978) Leon Litwack, Been in the Storm So Long (1979) Elizabeth Fox-Genovese, Within the Plantation Households: Black and White Women of the Old South (1988) Robert W. Fogel, Without Consent or Contract: The Rise and Fall of American Slavery (1989)
Introduction How slavery is taught today in West Africa today W.E.B. DuBois, Booker T. Washington Bacon’s Rebellion, 1676, led to importation of slaves Stanley Elkins – “sambo” and Nazi Holocaust + People of Plenty, by David Potter [UCSB’s Dr. Roderick Nash used them] Robert Fogel Future chapters -- 1839, Amistad // 1831 Nat Turner Malcolm X – house verse field Negroes and MLK, Jr. in 1950s and 1960a
Text Identifications Metacom William Penn Glorious Revolution Half-way covenant Praying towns Nathaniel Bacon Dominion of New England Sir Edmund Andros Salem Witch Trials, 1692 Middle passage
Review Questions Explain the events leading to the Glorious Revolution, and briefly explain its impact on the colonies. Explain the social, cultural, and political tensions that led to a series of rebellions against authority in the various colonies, and the 1692 witchcraft episode in Salem. Explain the development of William Penn’s “holy experiment,” and compare Quaker relations with Native Americans with their treatment in other American colonies. Discuss the rise and entrenchment of slavery in British America. Explain how geography & climate shaped slave life. Trace the economic development of the British colonies, and explain how mercantilism helped shape the social and cultural identities of New England and the Chesapeake. Explain the Africanization of the South and the two-way acculturation process in North America.
Africanization of the South Acculturation occurred in two directions--English influenced Africans and Africans influenced English. Africanization was evident in: cooking: barbecue, fried chicken, black-eyed peas, and collard greens; material culture: basket weaving, wood carving, and architecture; language: yam, banjo, tote, buddy; and music and dance: banjo. English influence in religion Between ten and eleven million African slaves came to the New World Only one in twenty Africans--approximately 600,000-- were transported to what became the United States.
I. Rebellions and War Religious unrest increases, especially between Puritans and Quakers King Philip’s War leads to loss for Indians Bacon’s Rebellion in Virginia challenges colonial government but is crushed Unsuccessful Pueblo revolt [Popé] also takes place against Spanish in Southwest
King Philip's War Club This ball-headed war club, carved of maple wood, is thought to have been owned by King Philip, who led a confederation of Wampanoags and other New England Indians in a war against the colonists in 1675–1676. It is inlaid on both sides with pieces of white and purple wampum, which supposedly represented the number of English and Indian enemies killed.
King Philip [Metacomet] chief in 1661 – Massachusetts war in 1675
II. William Penn’s “Holy Experiment” Penn has grand plans to establish Pennsylvania as haven for Quakers and place for him to gain wealth Colony is successful, but not for Penn Quakers – Uncle Ed Bailey in Whittier, CA in 1920s and 1930s
Quaker meeting in England [George Fox preached of “inner light”]
William Penn No colonial proprietor was more idealistic than William Penn, shown here in a portrait made in about 1698 by Francis Place. Penn wanted Pennsylvania to be a place of peace, prosperity, and religious toleration – especially for his fellow Quakers. The colony eventually became an economic success but failed to achieve the social harmony that Penn had wanted. AP/Wide World Photos.
A Letter Written by William Penn A letter written by William Penn on February 21, 1682, to native American Indians below an illustration depicting their treaty.
1830 “Peaceable Kingdom” by Edward Hicks representing Penn’s ideal society
III. The Glorious Revolution and Its Aftermath Charles II revokes Massachusetts charter and establishes the hated Dominion of New England Revolutions occur in 1689, both in England and in the colonies Social upheaval contributes to witchcraft hysteria in Salem, Massachusetts
King James II flees – Glorious Revolution of 1688
Mary II, daughter of James II, wife of King William of Orange
William of Orange, William III of England [1650 – 1702]
IV. Wars and Rivalry for North America English colonists in Carolinas invade Guale and Florida to gain control of trade centers French begin exploration and settlement of Louisiana Conflict in Canada leads to Queen Anne’s War, and its end gives French much power in Canada and Ohio Valley
King William’s War 1689 – beginning 75 years of war between England & France
John Locke [1632 – 1704], helped design “Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina”
Spanish and French Missions in Seventeenth-Century North America Spanish Franciscans in New Mexico (A) and Florida (B) and French Jesuits in New France (C) devoted considerable effort to converting native peoples to Catholic Christianity. A B C
Jesuit missionary This Jesuit missionary, wearing his distinctive Catholic vestments, is baptizing an Indian in New France. French Jesuits proved to be more tolerant than most European missionaries in allowing Indian converts to retain at least some of their own customs. Courtesy of Library of Congress
V. The Entrenchment of Slavery in British America Aside from feelings of cultural superiority, British enslave Africans mainly because Native Americans die in large numbers “Middle Passage” brings millions of Africans to the Americas Slavery develops in different ways, based on type of labor needed Slave rebellions occur rarely, but most resistance is less aggressive (e.g., feigned illness, theft, crop destruction) A few colonists, notably the Quakers, begin to question morality of slavery
Jamestown Slavery, 1619 Fourteen men and six women from Guinea arriving on a Dutch ship at Jamestown, Virginia, in August 1619, the beginning of Negro slavery in the American colonies. (colored engraving, 19th century).
African Origins of North American Slaves, 1690–1807 Nearly all slaves in English North America were West Africans. Most had been captured or purchased by African slave traders, who then sold them to European merchants.
Olaudah Equiano In 1756, Olaudah Equiano was eleven years old and living with his family in Nigeria. He was captured by African slave raiders and transported to America. Purchased first by a Virginia tobacco planter and later by an English sea captain, Equiano served as a slave for ten years before buying his freedom. He published his autobiography in 1789 as part of his dedication to the antislavery cause.
Olaudah Equiano The freed slave Olaudah Equiano appears in this 1780 portrait by an unknown artist. After purchasing his freedom, Equiano wrote a vivid account of his capture in Africa and his life in slavery. One of the first such accounts to be published (in 1789), this narrative testified to slavery’s injustice and Equiano’s own fortitude. “Portrait of a Negro Man, Olaudah Equiano,” 1780s (previously attributed to jashua Reynolds) by English School (18th c.). Royal Albert Memorial Museum, Exeter, Devon, UK/Bridgeman Art Library, London/New York.
Slave trade As this nineteenth-century engraving indicates, slaves were often subjected to humiliating physical inspections so that potential buyers could be convinced of their good health and strength.
African traditions This eighteenth-century painting from South Carolina records the preservation of certain African traditions in American slave communities. The dance may be Yoruba in origin, while the stringed instrument and drum were probably modeled on African instruments.
VI. Economic Developments in the British Colonies Northern economies concentrate of fishing and shipping Seaports become places of great activity, despite problems of congestion Plantations of Chesapeake and South Carolina become more prosperous, largely due to use of slave labor