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Asia Section 4 Preview Main Idea / Reading Focus Postwar Japan The Pacific Rim The Asian Tigers Visual Study Guide / Quick Facts Video: The Impact of Vietnam’s.

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Presentation on theme: "Asia Section 4 Preview Main Idea / Reading Focus Postwar Japan The Pacific Rim The Asian Tigers Visual Study Guide / Quick Facts Video: The Impact of Vietnam’s."— Presentation transcript:

1 Asia Section 4 Preview Main Idea / Reading Focus Postwar Japan The Pacific Rim The Asian Tigers Visual Study Guide / Quick Facts Video: The Impact of Vietnam’s Location The Rise of Pacific Rim Economies

2 Asia Section 4 Reading Focus How did Japan change during the postwar years? How did the nations of the Pacific Rim change after World War II? How did the Asian Tigers develop? Main Idea The nations of the Asian Pacific Rim underwent remarkable economic growth in the years after World War II, but significant challenges remain. The Rise of Pacific Rim Economies

3 Asia Section 4 Japan suffered terrible destruction during World War II. After the war, the nation needed to rebuild its government and economy. American General Douglas MacArthur controlled Allied efforts to rebuild nation Rebuilding process had three basic steps –Demilitarizing Japan –Building democratic government –Establishing economy to support peaceful, democratic Japan American Occupation MacArthur’s first job, demilitarize Japan Removed all wartime political, military, business leaders from power Many tried as war criminals MacArthur also dismantled armed forces, shut down Japan’s military industries Demilitarization Postwar Japan

4 Asia Section 4 Building Democratic Government Second step began with new constitution for Japan, went into effect in 1947 Gave more power to Japanese people, established parliamentary democracy, gave all Japanese adults right to vote for Japan’s Diet Political Parties New constitution forbade Japan from building military capable of attacking other countries, guaranteed right to organize political parties Most important new party, Liberal Democratic Party (LDP), conservative party with pro-U.S. foreign policy Human Rights Emperor no longer sacred being, simply symbol of the state Great emphasis placed on importance of human rights, greatly expanded civil rights, including freedom of speech, assembly, religion Next Steps

5 Asia Section 4 Final Step Third step, rebuilding Japanese economy MacArthur made many economic changes –Sought to break up large organizations known as zaibatsu that had dominated Japanese industry –Established land reform program to give farmland to farmers who had previously rented land

6 Asia Section 4 Foreign Trade, Consumer Goods After Korean War, Japan built economy around foreign trade, production of consumer goods Constructed modern factories, quickly rebuilt heavy industry, including steel, automobile manufacturing Economic Recovery U.S. economic aid flowed freely; biggest boost came with outbreak of Korean War, 1950 During conflict Japan served as key source of supplies for U.S., UN forces fighting in nearby Korea

7 Asia Section 4 Even compared to postwar growth of most western democracies, Japan’s success stunning 1952, U.S. occupation ended By 1968, Japan had world’s second largest economy, is still major economic power Stunning Success Strong work ethic, good relations between management, labor contributed to industrial growth Exports rose quickly 1970s, Japan began to focus on electronics, computer technology Industrial Growth Rising Economy

8 Asia Section 4 The postwar economic growth led to an improved standard of living for Japanese workers and brought Japan many other social changes. New urban industries attracted workers from agriculture, small business Population of cities grew rapidly Late 1800s, only 15 percent of Japanese lived in urban areas By 1970, more than 80 percent urban population From Rural to Urban Japanese culture, family life changed as well Many young people adopted American customs, music, movies, food Gender roles changed—more women attended high school, college, won new freedoms Importance of extended family began to decline Culture, Family Life Social Changes

9 Asia Section 4 Summarize How did Japan change in the postwar years? Answer(s): standard of living improved; economy grew; culture adopted some American elements; gender roles changed

10 Asia Section 4 The Pacific Rim refers to the countries bordering or located in the Pacific Ocean. Like Japan, other nations in the Asian Pacific Rim worked to rebuild economies and support democracy after the war. The Philippines won independence from U.S. control in 1946 Established democratic government, kept close ties with U.S. By 1970s, President Ferdinand Marcos became dictator The Philippines Marcos imposed martial law, arrested opponents, stole millions from nation Chief rival, Benigno Aquino assassinated Killing led to anti- government riots Pressured, Marcos allowed elections Martial Law Voters elected Aquino’s widow, Corazon Aquino as new president Philippines returned to democracy 1990s, economy began to improve Many Filipinos still live in poverty Corazon Aquino The Pacific Rim

11 Asia Section 4 Korea remained divided nation after end of Korean War in 1953 North Korean dictator Kim II Sung formed Soviet model government; state controls much of economy, spending on heavy industry, military North Korea made significant gains with Soviet, Chinese aid Poverty, food shortages spread across nation as foreign aid decreased 1994, Kim Jong II took power Under his rule, North Korean economy has continued to deteriorate; however North funded expansion of military programs 2006, North Korea tested nuclear weapon for first time Nuclear Nation With U.S. aid, nation’s industries built up, emphasizing foreign trade, consumer goods Little freedom, political stability until reform began late 1980s Nuclear testing has led to more tension between North, South South on Different Path North Korea and South Korea

12 Asia Section 4 Movement Toward Democracy Continues Movement toward democracy continued in later years Today, China views Taiwan as integral part of China Insists two areas eventually will be reunited Taiwan resists pressure from China Taiwan 1949, Guomindang nationalists settled on Taiwan With U.S. economic, military aid, Taiwan built successful economy based on international trade, consumer goods 1980s, ended martial law, allowed other political parties to form

13 Asia Section 4 Summarize How did most of the Pacific Rim nations move toward democracy? Answer(s): with U.S. economic aid

14 Asia Section 4 The nations further benefited from their access to the major shipping routes of the Pacific Ocean. While Japan was building one of the world’s strongest economies in the years after World War II, other Asian nations were also making great economic gains. Because of economic successes, South Korea, Hong Kong, Taiwan and Singapore became known as the Asian Tigers. Asian Rim entered 1960s as poor, undeveloped region Over next few decades, Asian Tiger economies performed spectacularly Growth higher than that of similar economies in Latin America, Africa Spectacular Growth The Asian Tigers Countries followed pattern similar to one used by postwar Japan Ample education, training for citizens; skilled workforce necessary for industrial expansion Also received U.S. economic aid Industrial Expansion

15 Asia Section 4 Manufacturing As in Japan, Asian Tigers focused on growth Growth came through exports of consumer goods, primarily to United States Low costs for labor, production, as well as loyal, dedicated workforce allowed manufacture of low-cost products that could sell in U.S.

16 Asia Section 4 Success Led to Failure 1997, economies of Japan, Asian Tigers suffered shock when severe financial crisis hit region, partly due to region’s great success Superior performance led foreign companies to invest heavily in economies Financial Panic Financial panic quickly spread through region; foreign investors sold holdings Stock, real estate prices collapsed, currencies lost value Region overwhelmed by debts it could not pay; collapse undid years of progress Thailand’s Banks Failed Lack of government regulations allowed Asian Tiger banks to borrow more than they needed Crisis began when banks began to fail in Thailand An Economic Crisis

17 Asia Section 4 Economic Recovery Over the following decade, region began to recover from economic disaster Asian Miracle Great success of many Asian economies had many observers celebrating so-called Asian miracle Economic Powers Nations like Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Philippines began to emerge as economic powers An Asian Century Some predicted 2000s would be “Asian Century” Asia to surpass Europe, North America as dominant economic region in world An Asian Century

18 Asia Section 4 Find the Main Idea How did the Asian Tigers follow Japan’s model of economic growth? Answer(s): provided education and training for workers; focused on exports

19 Asia Section 4

20 Asia Section 4 Video The Impact of Vietnam’s Location Click above to play the video.


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