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Asian Tiger Mosquito Denise McNeill. Asian Tiger Mosquito Asian Tiger Mosquito What is a Asian Tiger Mosquito? What is a Asian Tiger Mosquito? What is.

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Presentation on theme: "Asian Tiger Mosquito Denise McNeill. Asian Tiger Mosquito Asian Tiger Mosquito What is a Asian Tiger Mosquito? What is a Asian Tiger Mosquito? What is."— Presentation transcript:

1 Asian Tiger Mosquito Denise McNeill

2 Asian Tiger Mosquito Asian Tiger Mosquito What is a Asian Tiger Mosquito? What is a Asian Tiger Mosquito? What is its characteristics? What is its characteristics? Where the Asian Tiger Mosquito come from? Where the Asian Tiger Mosquito come from? What is its life cycle and habits? What is its life cycle and habits? How are we able to identify it? How are we able to identify it? What is its scientific name? What is its scientific name? What is the scientific name, classification, and origin What is the scientific name, classification, and origin

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4 Some information on Asian Tiger Mosquito In August 1985, the Asian tiger mosquito was discovered breeding in discarded used tires in Houston, Texas and, within the next two years, populations had spread into 17 states. Current distribution is 25 states from Texas eastward to the Atlantic Ocean and as far north as Iowa. The known distribution of the Asian tiger mosquito in Ohio includes 8 locations - Ironton (Lawrence Co.) in 1997, Cincinnati (Hamilton Co.) and Portsmouth (Scioto Co.) in 1996, Coventry Township (Summit County) in 1993, Columbus (Franklin Co.) in 1992, Findlay (Hancock Co.), Greenville (Darke Co.), and Oak Hill (Jackson Co.) in This mosquito, imported into the United States, is a very aggressive biter, known as a vector of Dengue (breakbone fever) in southeast Asia and a potential vector of yellow fever, dengue, LaCrosse encephalitis and dog heartworm in this country (Ohio has more recorded cases of LaCrosse encephalitis than any other state). This mosquito breeds in standing water found in discarded used tires and other containers.

5 Some more information on Asian Tiger Mosquito The Asian tiger mosquito or forest day mosquito (Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus), from the mosquito family Culicidae, is characterized by its black and white striped legs, and small black and white body. It is native to the tropical and subtropical areas of Southeast Asia; however, in the past couple of decades this species has invaded many countries throughout the world through the transport of goods and increasing international travel. This mosquito has become a significant pest in many communities because it closely associates with humans (rather than living in wetlands), and typically flies and feeds in the daytime in addition to at dusk and dawn. The Asian tiger mosquito or forest day mosquito (Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus), from the mosquito family Culicidae, is characterized by its black and white striped legs, and small black and white body. It is native to the tropical and subtropical areas of Southeast Asia; however, in the past couple of decades this species has invaded many countries throughout the world through the transport of goods and increasing international travel. This mosquito has become a significant pest in many communities because it closely associates with humans (rather than living in wetlands), and typically flies and feeds in the daytime in addition to at dusk and dawn.

6 Name and systematic In 1895, a British-Australian entomologist, Frederick A. Askew Skuse, was the first to describe scientifically the Asian tiger mosquito, which he named Culex albopictus (lat. Culex “gnat, midge” and albopictus “white embroided”). Later, the species was assigned to the genus Aedes (gr. άηδής, "unpleasant") and referred to as Aedes albopictus. Like the yellow fever mosquito, it belongs to the subgenus Stegomyia (gr. στέγος, "covered, roofed", referring to the scales that completely cover the dorsal surface in this Subgenus, and μυία, "fly"). In 2004, scientists explored higher-level relationships and proposed a new classification within the Aedes genus and Stegomyia was elevated to the Genus level, making Aedes albopictus now Stegomyia albopicta. This is, however, a controversial matter, and the use of Stegomyia albopicta versus Aedes albopictus is continually debated. In 1895, a British-Australian entomologist, Frederick A. Askew Skuse, was the first to describe scientifically the Asian tiger mosquito, which he named Culex albopictus (lat. Culex “gnat, midge” and albopictus “white embroided”). Later, the species was assigned to the genus Aedes (gr. άηδής, "unpleasant") and referred to as Aedes albopictus. Like the yellow fever mosquito, it belongs to the subgenus Stegomyia (gr. στέγος, "covered, roofed", referring to the scales that completely cover the dorsal surface in this Subgenus, and μυία, "fly"). In 2004, scientists explored higher-level relationships and proposed a new classification within the Aedes genus and Stegomyia was elevated to the Genus level, making Aedes albopictus now Stegomyia albopicta. This is, however, a controversial matter, and the use of Stegomyia albopicta versus Aedes albopictus is continually debated.

7 Characteristics The Asian tiger mosquito is about 2 to 10 mm length with a striking white and black pattern. The variation of the body size in adult mosquitoes depends on the density of the larval population and food supply within the breeding water. Since these circumstances are only seldom optimal, the average body size of adult mosquitoes is considerably smaller than 10 mm. For example, the average length of the abdomen was calculated to be 2.63 mm, the wings 2.7 mm, and the proboscis 1.88 mm through a study of 10 images from 1962 of both male and female mosquitoes. The Asian tiger mosquito is about 2 to 10 mm length with a striking white and black pattern. The variation of the body size in adult mosquitoes depends on the density of the larval population and food supply within the breeding water. Since these circumstances are only seldom optimal, the average body size of adult mosquitoes is considerably smaller than 10 mm. For example, the average length of the abdomen was calculated to be 2.63 mm, the wings 2.7 mm, and the proboscis 1.88 mm through a study of 10 images from 1962 of both male and female mosquitoes. The males are roughly 20% smaller than the females, but they are morphologically very similar. However, as in all mosquito species, the antenmae of the males in comparison to the females are noticeably bushier and contain auditory receptors to detect the characteristic whine of the female. The maxillary palps of the males are also longer than their proboscises whereas the females’ maxillary palps are much shorter. (This is typical for representatives of subfamilies.) In addition, the tarsus of the hind legs of the males is more silvery. Tarsomere IV is roughly three-quarters silver in the males where as the females’ is only about 60% silver. The males are roughly 20% smaller than the females, but they are morphologically very similar. However, as in all mosquito species, the antenmae of the males in comparison to the females are noticeably bushier and contain auditory receptors to detect the characteristic whine of the female. The maxillary palps of the males are also longer than their proboscises whereas the females’ maxillary palps are much shorter. (This is typical for representatives of subfamilies.) In addition, the tarsus of the hind legs of the males is more silvery. Tarsomere IV is roughly three-quarters silver in the males where as the females’ is only about 60% silver. The other characteristics do not differentiate between genders. A single silvery-white line of tight scales begins between the eyes and continues down the dorsal side of the thorax. This characteristic marking is the easiest and surest way to identify the Asian tiger mosquito. The other characteristics do not differentiate between genders. A single silvery-white line of tight scales begins between the eyes and continues down the dorsal side of the thorax. This characteristic marking is the easiest and surest way to identify the Asian tiger mosquito.

8 More characteristics The probiscus is dark colored, the upper surface of the end segment of the palps is covered in silvery scales, and the labium does not feature a light line on its underside. The compound eyes are distinctly separated from one another. The scutum, the dorsal portion of an insect’s thoracic segment, is black alongside the characteristic white midline. On the side of the thorax, the scutellum, and the abdomen there are numerous spots covered in white-silvery scales. The probiscus is dark colored, the upper surface of the end segment of the palps is covered in silvery scales, and the labium does not feature a light line on its underside. The compound eyes are distinctly separated from one another. The scutum, the dorsal portion of an insect’s thoracic segment, is black alongside the characteristic white midline. On the side of the thorax, the scutellum, and the abdomen there are numerous spots covered in white-silvery scales. Such white-silvery scales can also be found on the tarsus, particularly on the hind legs that are commonly suspended in the air. The base of tarsomere I through IV has a ring of white scales, creating the appearance of white and black rings. On the fore legs and middle legs, only the first three tarsomeres have the ring of white scales whereas tarsomere V on the hind legs is completely white. The femur of each leg is also black with white scales on the end of the “knee”. The femurs of the middle legs do not feature a silver line on the base of the upper side, where as, the femurs on the hind legs have short white lines on base of the upper side. The tibias are black on the base and have no white scales. Such white-silvery scales can also be found on the tarsus, particularly on the hind legs that are commonly suspended in the air. The base of tarsomere I through IV has a ring of white scales, creating the appearance of white and black rings. On the fore legs and middle legs, only the first three tarsomeres have the ring of white scales whereas tarsomere V on the hind legs is completely white. The femur of each leg is also black with white scales on the end of the “knee”. The femurs of the middle legs do not feature a silver line on the base of the upper side, where as, the femurs on the hind legs have short white lines on base of the upper side. The tibias are black on the base and have no white scales. The terga on segments II through VI of the abdomen are dark and have an almost triangular silvery-white marking on the base that is not aligned with the silvery bands of scales on the ventral side of the abdomen. The triangular marking and the silvery band are only aligned on abdominal segment VII. The transparent wings have white spots on the base of the Costas. With older mosquito specimens, the scales could be partially worn off making the previously mentioned characteristics not stand out as much. The terga on segments II through VI of the abdomen are dark and have an almost triangular silvery-white marking on the base that is not aligned with the silvery bands of scales on the ventral side of the abdomen. The triangular marking and the silvery band are only aligned on abdominal segment VII. The transparent wings have white spots on the base of the Costas. With older mosquito specimens, the scales could be partially worn off making the previously mentioned characteristics not stand out as much.

9 More characteristics The typical Aedes albopictus individual has a length of about 2 to 10mm. As with other members of the mosquito family, the female is equipped with an elongated proboscis that she uses to collect blood to feed her eggs. The Asian tiger mosquito has a rapid bite that allows it to escape most attempts by people to swat it. By contrast the male member of the species primarily feeds on nectar. The typical Aedes albopictus individual has a length of about 2 to 10mm. As with other members of the mosquito family, the female is equipped with an elongated proboscis that she uses to collect blood to feed her eggs. The Asian tiger mosquito has a rapid bite that allows it to escape most attempts by people to swat it. By contrast the male member of the species primarily feeds on nectar. The female lays her eggs near water; not directly into it as other mosquitoes do, but typically near a stagnant pool. However, any open container containing water will suffice for larvae development, even with less than an ounce of water in. It can also breed in running water, so stagnant pools of water are not its only breeding sites. It has a short flight range (less than 200 m), so breeding sites are likely to be close to where this mosquito is found. The female lays her eggs near water; not directly into it as other mosquitoes do, but typically near a stagnant pool. However, any open container containing water will suffice for larvae development, even with less than an ounce of water in. It can also breed in running water, so stagnant pools of water are not its only breeding sites. It has a short flight range (less than 200 m), so breeding sites are likely to be close to where this mosquito is found.

10 Identification Adults are known as tiger mosquitoes due to their conspicuous patterns of very black bodies with white stripes. Also, there is a distinctive single white band (stripe) down the length of the back. The body length is about 3/16-inch long. Like all adult mosquitoes, Asian tiger mosquitoes are small, fragile insects with slender bodies, one pair of narrow wings (tiny scales are attached to wing veins), and three pairs of long, slender legs. They have an elongate proboscis (beak) with which the female bites and feeds on blood, while males feed only on plant nectar. Eggs are elongate, usually 1/40-inch long, and dark brown to black near hatching. Larvae (wigglers) are filter feeders that move with an S-shaped motion. Pupae (tumblers) are comma-shaped, appearing to tumble through the water when disturbed. Adults are known as tiger mosquitoes due to their conspicuous patterns of very black bodies with white stripes. Also, there is a distinctive single white band (stripe) down the length of the back. The body length is about 3/16-inch long. Like all adult mosquitoes, Asian tiger mosquitoes are small, fragile insects with slender bodies, one pair of narrow wings (tiny scales are attached to wing veins), and three pairs of long, slender legs. They have an elongate proboscis (beak) with which the female bites and feeds on blood, while males feed only on plant nectar. Eggs are elongate, usually 1/40-inch long, and dark brown to black near hatching. Larvae (wigglers) are filter feeders that move with an S-shaped motion. Pupae (tumblers) are comma-shaped, appearing to tumble through the water when disturbed.

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12 Habitat, diet, and host location Asian tiger mosquitoes occur in urban, suburban and rural regions. They can also exist in woodlands, particularly on the outer fringe close to human settlements and in secondary forests. You will very seldom find them in vegetation poor biotypes. Asian tiger mosquitoes occur in urban, suburban and rural regions. They can also exist in woodlands, particularly on the outer fringe close to human settlements and in secondary forests. You will very seldom find them in vegetation poor biotypes. Like other mosquito species, only the females require a blood meal to develop their eggs. Apart from that, they receive their energy demand from nectar and other sweet plant juices just as the males do. In regards to host location, carbon dioxide and organic substances produced from the host, humidity, and optical recognition play important roles. The search for a host takes place in two phases. First, the mosquito exhibits a nonspecific searching behavior until the perception of host stimulants which is then followed by a targeted approach. For catching tiger mosquitoes with special traps, carbon dioxide and a combination of chemicals that naturally occur in human skin (fatty acids, ammonia, and ) are the most attractive. The Asian tiger mosquito particularly bites during the day. Depending upon region and biotype there are differing active peaks but for the most part they rest during the morning and night hours. They search for their hosts inside and outside of human dwellings, but are particularly active outside. The size of the blood meal depends upon the size of the mosquito, but it is usually around 2 microliters.

13 Natural enemies Toxorhynchites larvae, a mosquito genus that does not suck blood, feeds upon other mosquito larvae and are often found together with tiger mosquito larvae. Flatworms and also small swimming beetles are considered natural predators. Toxorhynchites larvae, a mosquito genus that does not suck blood, feeds upon other mosquito larvae and are often found together with tiger mosquito larvae. Flatworms and also small swimming beetles are considered natural predators. Primarily fungi, ciliates, paramecia, and protozoan act as parasites to Asian tiger mosquitoes. Relatives of Oomycetes, also known as water molds, from the genus Coelomomyces (Phylum Chytridiomycota, Order Blastocladiales) develop inside the visceral cavity of mosquito larvae. Primarily fungi, ciliates, paramecia, and protozoan act as parasites to Asian tiger mosquitoes. Relatives of Oomycetes, also known as water molds, from the genus Coelomomyces (Phylum Chytridiomycota, Order Blastocladiales) develop inside the visceral cavity of mosquito larvae.

14 Distribution Climatic adaptations Although Aedes albopictus is native to tropical and subtropical regions, they are successfully adapting themselves to cooler regions. In the warm and humid tropical regions, they are active the entire year long, however, in temperate regions they hibernate over winter. Eggs from strains in the temperate zone are more tolerant to the cold than ones from warmer regions. They can even tolerate snow and temperatures under freezing. In addition, adult tiger mosquitoes can survive throughout winter in suitable microhabitats. Although Aedes albopictus is native to tropical and subtropical regions, they are successfully adapting themselves to cooler regions. In the warm and humid tropical regions, they are active the entire year long, however, in temperate regions they hibernate over winter. Eggs from strains in the temperate zone are more tolerant to the cold than ones from warmer regions. They can even tolerate snow and temperatures under freezing. In addition, adult tiger mosquitoes can survive throughout winter in suitable microhabitats.


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