Presentation on theme: "By Nada Abudawood. What is Lepidoptera? The INSECTA is divided into approximately 24 groups called ORDERS and Butterflies and moths belong to the Order."— Presentation transcript:
By Nada Abudawood
What is Lepidoptera? The INSECTA is divided into approximately 24 groups called ORDERS and Butterflies and moths belong to the Order LEPIDOPTERA, which means 'scale-winged'. The Lepidoptera are considered one of the 'higher' orders of insects and are placed between the Caddisflies (Trichoptera) and Bees and Wasps (Hymenoptera).
Life cycle of Lepidoptera Lepidoptera undergo what is known as a 'complete metamorphosis'. This consists of four very distinct stages - Egg (Ovum), Caterpillar (Larva), Chrysalis (Pupa) and Adult (Imago). Apart from overwintering stages, the larval stage is usually the longest and where the main part of development and acquisition of nutrients takes place. Larval food consists of vegetable matter of most kinds, depending on the species of insect. Leaves of trees and plants are the usual parts eaten, but flowers, dead vegetable matter and live timber or internal parts of woody plants are all utilised.
Characteristics during the stages of Lepidoptera Egg: during this stage the egg appears dormant but it is actually developing into the caterpillar. Larvae: is the caterpillar stage, it is the specialist feeding stage and the caterpillar has large quantities of protein rich foods mainly plant leaves. It is also a dispersal stage as the larvae move to and colonize different areas. The mouth parts (mandibles) are specialized for feeding on leaves and the larvae has special enzymes for digestion. Amylase digests starch to maltose Maltase digests maltose to glucose. Sucrase which digests sucrose to fructose and glucose. Protease digests proteins to amino acid. Lipase which digests oils to fatty acids and glycerol.
Characteristics during the stages of Lepidoptera Chrysalis: this stage is sometimes called the pupa stage, the tissues are reorganizing themselves. It turns from a caterpillar into a butterfly. It develops wings and legs, thorax, and an abdomen. Adult stage: which is the butterfly, it is a special reproductive stage, and it is also very important for dispersal of the species to new areas. It needs plenty for energy which it takes it in form of nectar from the flowers using its long proboscis. It has the enzyme sucrase to digest sucrose and glucose.
Further facts Mortality amongst all stages of Lepidoptera is very high and it is probable that no more than 1% of ova laid ever reach maturity. Predation by other forms of animal life, including insects, accounts for a large proportion of losses. Many predators such as birds are far larger than insects and therefore need large numbers to satisfy food demands. The breeding season of birds coincides with the maximum number of lepidopterous larvae and species such as the Blue Tit (Paruscaeruleus Linn.) feed several thousands to their nestlings every day. Such birds are considered beneficial in controlling populations of insects which may harm fruit and woodland trees. Less obvious predators are internal larval parasites, usually the larvae of Flies (Diptera) or Wasps (Hymenoptera). In the case of the latter group, the female possess a long ovipositor resembling a sting. This is pushed through the skin of a larva and an egg laid internally. The resulting larva of the wasp then feeds on the food supplies of the host larva. However, to avoid starvation, the wasp larva feeds in non-lethal parts of its host until it is full grown.
Butterfly features A- Forewing B - Antenna C - Compound eye D - Proboscis E - Thorax F - Leg G- Abdomen H - Hindwing I - «tail».