Presentation on theme: "Pennsylvania Fresh Water Macroinvertebrates"— Presentation transcript:
1Pennsylvania Fresh Water Macroinvertebrates Pennsylvania Fresh Water MacroinvertebratesBy:Nick Bonney
2Mayfly nymph Usually have three long tails also called cerci Usually have three long tails also called cerciThey have a single claw on each legShort antennaeSize: 15 mm or less.Are sensitive to low levels of oxygen in the water. They prefer cool water. They are sensitive to chemical pollution in the water, and sunlightlarvae have elongated bodies that are slightly flattenedLive on the bottom for upwards of 2 years.
3Mayfly AdultShort lifespan, only a few hours long just long enough to mate and lay eggsHead is large with round prominent eyesDifferent species range from about 1/4 to 1-inch long.Adults are pale yellow with brownish stripes and a reddish brown thorax
4Facts About MayfliesMayfly Nymphs can take from three weeks to two years to become adults.Adult Mayflies have male and female sexes, but in some species the females can lay unfertilized eggs that hatch into more females. This is called parthenogenesisOne of there main predators are trout
5Stonefly Nymph Live under stones in fast-flowing streams Live under stones in fast-flowing streamsOn the submerged wood and leaf litter in streamsTubes of thread-like gills on their undersideEach leg has two clawsStreamline bodies so they don’t get swept awayEat dead plants and algaeSome stonefly species stalk their prey and are eating other animals.Very sensitive to low levels of oxygen in waterCan last up to 3 years requiring up to 25 molts to develop completely.Do not go through a pupa stage and is not considered a complete metamorphosis.
6Stone fly Adult Long noticeable antennae Two hair-like tails Long noticeable antennaeTwo hair-like tailsSmooth abdomenWidely separated big eyes2 separate pairs of wing pads
7Facts About Stoneflies Many species have strong color patternsOften confused with mayfly nymphs but stoneflies have 2 tails and mayflies have 3.Size: 7-12 mm longSome species take up to three years to develop into adults.Adult Stoneflies live only for a week to a month, and females live longer than males.Over 460 speciesOften are 2 toned
8More Facts About Stoneflies Most females skim the surface of the stream, dipping their abdomens in the water and releasing their eggs.Others will crawl to the bottom of the stream and then release their eggs on objects.Stoneflies are very clumsy fliers and during the egg releasing and will cause splashing on the surface of the water which attracts the attention of fish.
9Dragonfly NymphThey are short and chunky with wing pads and internal gills. Their six legs are all located near the head.Their six legs are all located near the head.Size: mm long.They live on plants, among stones, leaf litter, or at the bottom of ponds or slow-flowing water ways.They are predators and feed mostly on other insects. Sometimes, they can be cannibals and eat each other. Some of the larger species feed on small fish and tadpoles. They catch their food with a toothed lip.They are sensitive to habitat disturbance and they need aquatic vegetation in the.
10Dragonfly Adultadult cannot fold its wings along it's back like its cousin the damselfly
11Facts About Dragonflies It breathes by sucking water into its abdomen to move water over its internal gills.Once it has absorbed the oxygen, it squeezes the water out so it does not have to come up for air like most pond insects.This also helps jet propel themMuch of a dragonfly's life is spent in the larval stage where it molts six to 15 times.450 species of dragonflies in North America.
12Damselfly Nymphcomplete life cycle in one year but some take two years. mate over the shallow water, sometimes in flight but often while clinging to the exposed portions of weed beds or shoreline vegetation.The damselfly nymph is a predator. Usually it lies in wait for other aquatic bugs to get within range and then grabs them with its 'labium' which is much like a modified lower jaw.The nymph will proceed through 10 to 12 molts before becoming fully developed and ready to come out as an adult. Depending on the species, the adult will live for several weeks to several months before mating and dying.Size: 25 mm long (one inch)
13Damselfly Adultmate over the shallow water sometimes while in flight but often while clinging to the weed beds or other vegetationafter mating, the female will crawl down the vegetation, and into the water to lay her eggs on the submerged vegetation.Depending on the species, the adult will live for several weeks to several months before mating and dying.Size: 50 mm(2 inches)
14Caddis fly larva and nymph Size: Up to 20 mm long.They live many bodies of water from fast flowing streams to freshwater ponds. Their soft bodies are usually covered in a protective silky case.They use their hooks to cling to the stream bed and also to drag themselves backwards to escape from predators.They eat algae and plants .Some species feed on other insects and spin silky nets to capture their prey. Some eat the larvae of other Caddis fly species, while others scrape algae from stones or plants, or shred leafs.
15Caddisfly adult Size: about 25mm(1 inch) Resemble small moths with wings held tent-like over their back when at restThey have short lives and spend most of their time mating or laying eggs.Females lay eggs on the edge of the water or dipping their abdomen into the surface of the water. There is usually one generation per year.Do not feed
16Facts about Caddis flies Related to butterflies and moths.They use silk to build cases from gravel, twigs, needles, or sand, depending on what they find.They are an important food for many fishWhen turned on their side, usually make a C shape.They cannot tolerate water pollution.There is usually one generation per year.
18All mosquitoes lay eggs in water, which can include large bodies of water, standing water (like swimming pools) or areas of collected standing water (like tree holes or gutters).Females lay their eggs on the surface of the water, except for Aedes mosquitoes, which lay their eggs above water in protected areas that eventually flood.The eggs can be laid singly or as a group that forms a floating raft of mosquito eggs. Most eggs can survive the winter and hatch in the spring.