Presentation on theme: "***Historical linguistics – The study of language change using formal methods that compare shifts over time and across space in aspects of language, such."— Presentation transcript:
***Historical linguistics – The study of language change using formal methods that compare shifts over time and across space in aspects of language, such as phonetics, syntax and semantics. - Historical linguists help track these basic changes in language and syntax but they will also follow the
Language family – A group of languages descended from a parent language.
Writing Systems Earliest evidence for written language comes from-- Mesopotamia, Egypt and China. The oldest written language comes from 4 th millennium BCE, in ancient Sumer. The ancient written form of the Sumerian language is known as, Cuneiform.
Complex Writing systems have been associated with the rise of the state. Archaeologists have asserted that ancient writing systems developed out of a need to– – Keep historical records, inventories, and ledgers. – Political histories, propaganda war events, and royal ascension – Religious ceremonies, rites of passage, myths, legends, calendars and astronomical events.
***Khipu – Cords of knotted string used during the Inca empire for keeping accounts and recording events. Scholars are not sure how the khipu system worked but it is believed that the Inca had a highly complex system of deciphering each knot, color/combination, and length of knotted cords. Although the khipu system is not technically a written language scholars believe that much of the empire’s events were recorded on khipus and only decipherable by trained record keepers. The Inca empire was the largest empire during the 14 th century
*** Logograph – A symbol that conveys meaning through a form of picture resembling that to which it refers. Languages that have utilized logographic symbols or logo-syllabic symbols include-- Ancient and Contemporary Chinese, Ancient Egyptian and Ancient Mayan.
Globalization and Colonialism **Creole – A language directly descended from a pidgin but possessing its own native speakers and involving linguistic expansion and elaboration. **Pidgin – A contact language that blends elements of at least two languages and that emerges when people with different languages need to communicate. **Global language – A Language spoken widely throughout the world and in diverse cultural contexts, often replacing indigenous languages.
Loan Words in North American English Alcohol Avocado Banana Bogus Candy Caucus Chimpanzee Chocolate Gong Hammock Hip/hep Hurricane Lime Moose Panda Savannah Shampoo Sugar Tepee Thug Tobacco Tomato Tundra Typhoon Zombie Arabic, Middle East Nahuatl, Mexico/C.A. Mandingo, W. Africa Hausa, W. Africa Arabic, Middle East Algonquin, Virginia/Delaware Bantu, W. Africa Aztec Nahuatl Malaysia, SE Asia Arawakan, South America Wolof, W. Africa Taino, Caribbean Inca Quechua Algonquin Nepali, South Asia Taino, Caribbean Hindi Sanskrit, S. Asia Sioux Hindi Arawak, S. America Nahuatl Saami, Lapland, Northern Europe Mandarin Chinese Congo, Angola W. Africa
Endangered Languages and Revitalization Linguistic anthropology was prompted by a need to document disappearing indigenous languages and the stages that led to that decline. Languages and peoples that have been encroached upon by other people can react to this encroachment in two main ways – Adopt the language of the main or conquering group. – Rebel against the language of the main group and continue to speak their native language in subversive circles.
4 Phases of Language decline and loss 1.Language shift, or decay. A category of language decline when speakers have a limited vocabulary in their native language and more often use a new language in which they may be semi-fluent or fluent. 2.Language endangerment, exists when a language has fewer than 10,000 speakers. 3.Near-Extinction, is a situation in which only a few elderly speakers are still living. 4.Language extinction, occurs when the language has no competent speakers.
New English: The rise of transnationalism in the USA English being one of the most widely spoken languages on earth spread its roots through colonialism and merchant/trade routes (17 th century CE). It is through colonialism that English proper subdivided into a variety of regional dialects. So many English dialects exist that Linguists are thinking of adding an English language family. This family would include- spanglish, japlish, textese and Tex-Mex.