2 What We Will LearnHow does human language differ from forms of communication in other animals?How do children acquire language?How do languages change?Are some languages superior to others?What is the relationship between language and culture?How do people communicate without using words?
3 The Nature of Language Found in all cultures of the world. Symbolic system of sounds that conveys meaning when put together according to a set of rules.Meanings attached to any given word in all languages are totally arbitrary.
4 Diversity of Language There are as many as 6,000 discrete languages. 95% of the world’s people speak fewer than 100 of approximately 6,000 languages.Mandarin accounts for about 1 in every 5 people on earth.English, Hindi, Spanish, and Russian, accounts for about 45%.
5 Major Languages of the World Primary CountryNumber of SpeakersMandarinChina874,000,000HindiIndia366,000,000EnglishUK/USA341,000,000SpanishSpain/South America322,000,000BengaliBangladesh207,000,000PortuguesePortugal/Brazil176,000,000
6 Major Languages of the World Primary CountryNumber of SpeakersRussianRussia167,000,000JapaneseJapan125,000,000GermanGermany100,000,000KoreanKorea78,000,000FrenchFrance77,000,000WuChina
7 Characteristics of Human Communication Systems Capable of sending an infinite number of messages.Humans are only animals that speak of events from the past or in the future (displacement).Language is transmitted largely through tradition rather than experience alone.
8 Structure of Human Languages Phonological structure includes rules of how sounds combine to convey meanings.Each language has a grammatical structure that governs:How morphemes are formed into words (morphology).How words are arranged into phrases and sentences (syntax).
10 Language Change Language is constantly changing. When linguists study how languages change over time, they are engaged in diachronic analysis.Historical linguists may study changes in a single language, such as changes from Old English to modern English.Comparative Linguists can look at changes that have occurred in related languages.
11 Language FamiliesA language family comprises all of the languages that derive from its common protolanguage.The English language is part of the family known as the Indo-European language family.Germanic is the mother of English.French and Spanish are sister languages.Russian, Bulgarian, and Polish share a common Slavic mother.
12 Language FamiliesLinguists generally agree that there are more than 250 different language families in the world today.Of these 150 are found in the Americas, 60 in New Guinea, 26 in Australia, 20 in Africa, and 37 in Europe and Asia.
14 Colloquialisms From Baseball She threw me a curve.You’re way off base.You’re batting 1,000 (500, zero) so far.I want to touch all the bases.He went to bat for me.He has two strikes against him.That’s way out in left field.He drives me up the wall.
15 Sapir–Whorf Hypothesis Language influences perception.Language establishes mental categories that affect the ways people conceptualize the real world.
16 DiglossiaThe situational use of language in complex speech communities.A linguistic situation where two varieties of the same language (such as standard form, dialect, or pidgin) are spoken by the same person at different times and under different social circumstances.
17 Examples of Diglossia High Form Low Form Religious service Marketplace Political speechesInstructions to subordinatesLegislative proceedingsFriendly conversationsUniversity lecturesFolk literatureNews broadcastsRadio/TV programsNewspapersCartoonsPoetryGraffiti
18 Nonverbal Communication Most messages are sent and received without words:Facial expressionsGesturesEye contactTouchingPosture
20 1. The language characteristic of ________ allows humans to speak of things or events that have happened in the past, or may occur in the future.displacementframe substitutionglossolaliamorphology
21 Answer: aThe language characteristic of displacement allows humans to speak of things or events that have happened in the past, or may occur in the future.
22 2. _______ involves the study of the basic building blocks of a language. LinguisticsPhonologyGrammar
23 Answer: bPhonology involves the study of the basic building blocks of a language.
24 3. The ________ is a combination of phonemes which convey some meaning. morphemeallomorphphonemegrammar
25 Answer: aThe morpheme is a combination of phonemes which convey some meaning.
26 4. The rules of a language which controls how people speak and make themselves understood make up itsphonemes.syntax.grammar.morphemes.
27 Answer: cThe rules of a language which controls how people speak and make themselves understood make up its grammar.
28 5. _______ suggests that language actually establishes mental categories that predispose people to see things in a certain way.Diachronic analysisHistorical linguisticsDescriptive linguisticsThe Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
29 Answer: dThe Sapir-Whorf hypothesis suggests that language actually establishes mental categories that predispose people to see things in a certain way.