Presentation on theme: "“Yet a funny thing happens on the way to those final assessments: day-to-day learning takes place. I am certain that, in education, evaluation needs to."— Presentation transcript:
“Yet a funny thing happens on the way to those final assessments: day-to-day learning takes place. I am certain that, in education, evaluation needs to pay more attention to the systematic observation of learners who are on their way to those final assessments.” (p. 1) Clay, M. (1987). Reading begins at home: preparing children before they go to school. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
Developed by Marie Clay from the early reading studies she conducted in the 1960’s A way for teachers to quickly and easily assess their students' reading behaviors “on the run” Simplification of miscue analysis done at 3 rd grade and above Uses only the first 100-150 words in a passage (or the whole thing if it’s less)
A record of reading behaviors – a “snapshot” Specific type of shorthand, or codes, record detailed information during the reading ◦ Codes are “standardized…consistent across settings and among teachers” This running record, “provides the teacher with a playback of an entire oral reading episode, including the smallest details on the reader’s attitude, demeanor, accuracy, an understanding ” (p. 10) (Shea, M. 2000. Taking running records. New York: Scholastic)
Assessment tool Document progress Provide insights into the child’s reading strategies Plan for future instruction Find appropriate reading level of student To guide reading instruction www1.rcas.org/literacy/pdfs/assessmenthand out.pdf
Teacher’s role: to observe child’s reading behaviors while tracking accuracy and errors on separate sheet of paper Child’s role: to read chosen text independently with minimal assistance from teacher
Choose a book/passage that child has read 1-2 times before ◦ It can also be done with a Benchmark book – one that represents a certain level, but one that the child has never read before Teacher sits next to child in order to view passage On separate piece of paper, write a checkmark for each word read correctly* When mismatch occurs during reading, draw a line* ◦ Child’s behavior above the line Correct word (and any teacher’s actions) below the line At the end of the oral reading, teacher may ask child to retell story in his/her own words or may ask a series of comprehension questions. *Fountas, I.C. & Pinnell, G.S. (1996). Guided reading: Good first teaching for all children. Portsmouth, NH: Heineman.
Teacher NotationMeaningError √Correct wordNo TTold (by teacher)Yes SCSelf correctNo -Skipped wordYes ^Inserted wordYes TTA“try that again”Yes RRepetition (per word)Yes ← Repetition to a starting pointYes AAppeal (asks for help)No WStudent hesitatedNo //Short pause No # Long pauseNo
Accuracy rate: subtract numbers of errors from total number of words, then divide by total words, and multiply by 100 ◦ Ex: 50 total words – 4 errors = 46 ◦ 46/50 =.92 ◦.92x100 = 92% 95-100%: Independent level 90-94%: Instructional level Below 90%: Frustration level Fountas, Irene C. and Pinnell, Gay Su. (1996). Guided reading: Good first teaching for all children. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
Self-correction ratio: ◦ (# of errors + # of self-corrections)/# of self- corrections = self-correction ratio ◦ (8+3)/3 = 3.666 = 4 ◦ SC rate is 1:4 Error ratio: ◦ Total words/total errors = error ratio ◦ 50/4= 12.5 (round up to 13) ◦ Error rate is 1:13
Analysis focuses on the cueing system the reader uses 3 cueing systems are: ◦ Meaning – semantic system ◦ Structure - syntactic system ◦ Visual – graphophonic system First, the teacher analyzes each mistake according to M, S, or V – what influenced the error Then, teacher interprets overall pattern of mistakes to evaluate child’s reading behaviors Blaiklock, R. (2003). A critique of running records. Paper presented at the New Zealand Association for Research in Education/Australian Association for Research in Education Conference.
Meaning Semantic Cue system Does it make sense? Structure Syntactic Cue System Does it sound right? Visual Graphophonic Cue System Does it look right? Prior knowledge Text IllustrationsStory sense Natural language Knowledge of English Grammatical patterns and language structures Print conventions *directionality *words/spaces *letters *punctuation *beginnings/ endings Analogies Sounds and symbols www1.rcas.org/literacy/pdfs/assessmenthandout.pdf
http://www.learnnc.org/lp/editions/readassess/983 Like You Were Mine I remember very well the day you were born. Mom went into the hospital. I was only eight years old and I wasn’t allowed in the hospital room. So I sent mom a necklace and a note. I bought the necklace from the school store. It was a heart charm with a flower in the middle and a note that read: Dear Mom, I hope you are o.k. I hope you like the present I got you. I hope the baby is a girl. Love, Maria Mom did like the present. And she was o.k. And you were a girl.
LearnNC.org: Ongoing Assessment for Reading ◦ http://www.learnnc.org/lp/editions/readassess/1.0 http://www.learnnc.org/lp/editions/readassess/1.0 Reading A-Z.com ◦ http://www.readinga-z.com http://www.readinga-z.com Clay, M. (2000). Running records for classroom teachers. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. Fountas, I.C. & Pinnell, G.S. (1996). Guided reading: Good first teaching for all children. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
Fluency Theory, research, and practice ✎ According to Marshall and Campbell (Schumm, 2006, p.191), reading with fluency has four components: ✎ An effective instructional approach in fluency focuses on the four components of fluent reading. By modeling fluent reading, providing opportunities to reread as well as to check for comprehension, and by providing immediate feedback, teachers help students to increase their reading rate, accuracy, and understanding. tone juncture or phrasing pitch reading that sounds like talking constructing meaning while reading percentage of words read correctly reading rate measured in words per minute (wpm) SpeedAccuracy Expression or Prosody Comprehension Fluency relationship between speed and accuracy measured in words correct per minute (wcpm) Accuracy levels Independent level decode 99% of words Instructional level decode 95% of words Frustration level decode equal or less than 90% of words
Fluency Theory, research, and practice To provide appropriate fluency instruction crucial information to gather at the beginning of the school year is: (1) students’ reading levels, (2) a baseline oral reading fluency, and (3) word recognition accuracy levels. During the year it is important to continue informing instruction based on assessment. Select books that are at the instructional level of students, and allow them to select books to independently practice fluent reading. Rereading is an important component of fluency instruction that can be more enjoyable when keeping track of improvements. Engage students in self-monitoring as well as peer-monitoring to increase motivation. General Guidelines to Differentiate Instruction in Fluency Level 1: High-Quality Core Instruction Reading aloud to students primarily provides a model of fluent reading, but it is also an opportunity to demonstrate comprehension strategies before, during, and after reading. Shared reading involves the teacher modeling fluent reading and students following along in their own books. Discussion and listening skills are guided by the teacher. Choral reading encompasses two moments: first, the teacher models fluent reading of a passage; then, students read with the teacher the same portion of the text. This approach increases students’ confidence in reading and collaboration. Readers’ theatre engages students acting out while reading aloud an assigned text. This activity is highly engaging for all students.
In Classwide peer tutoring (CWPT) students with different reading levels work in pairs to improve fluency and comprehension. Students are tutors and tutees, while the teachers is a facilitator and monitor. Structured repeated reading is an effective strategy that entails a student and the teacher in rereading a story and keeping a fluency progress chart. This activity can be imbedded in a read-along format or independent reading. Repeated listening involves students in reading while listening. Audiobooks or books on tapes at an appropriate instructional level and speed improves fluency and motivates independent rereadings that benefit greatly to students with LDs and ELLs. Level 3: Intensive Support Echo reading is a highly interactive activity in which a fluent reader reads, follow immediately by others. Rhymes and poems are suitable texts for this activity. During antiphonal reading there are groups of students that either read in unison or divide the text so all students read a piece. Neurological impress method (NIM) engages students in imitating correct pronunciation, intonation, and phrasing while reading aloud together with the teacher. Level 2: Supplemental Instruction Fluency Theory, research, and practice