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1861 EAST TENNESSEE UNIONIST REBELLION Causes and Effects & The people who made it happen.

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Presentation on theme: "1861 EAST TENNESSEE UNIONIST REBELLION Causes and Effects & The people who made it happen."— Presentation transcript:

1 1861 EAST TENNESSEE UNIONIST REBELLION Causes and Effects & The people who made it happen

2 AGENDA  Migrations that formed Tennessee  Political Conditions in Tennessee  Military Situation  Cloaks and Daggars  Starts and Stumbles  Execution  Lessons Learned

3 MIGRATIONS  Settlement along with Watauga River 1770 James Robertson John Sevier  Jurisdiction Virginia North Carolina If not them, then who?

4 MIGRATIONS  Watauga Association Government 13 Member Legislative Body 5 of those appointed as Commissioners 1 of those 5 elected by Commissioners as Chairman who presided over the Courts.  Watauga Association 1772 “They were the first men of American Birth to establish a free and independent community on the Continent” (Theodore Roosevelt Winning of the West, p183) “…the first written compact for civil government anywhere west of the Alleghanies." (JGM Ramsey, Annals of Tennessee p107)

5 MIGRATIONS  1779 Nashville is founded by James Robertson and other Wataugans.  1784 – 1788 State of Franklin

6 MIGRATIONS  June 1 st 1796 Tennessee Statehood Knoxville as Capital Constitution seemingly a recitation of all previous wrongs against the people of Watauga and protections against it. Thomas Jefferson, referring to Tennessee’s Constitution said, “"The most republican of all the constitutions adopted by the states.“

7 MIGRATIONS Trade Easier Farming More Room!

8 POLITICS Political Influence

9 POLITICS  Nashville and Middle Tennessee – Explosive Growth – 1830 Nashville grew 273% 1817 Capital of Tennessee moves to Murfreesboro 1826 Capital is moved again to Nashville  Knoxville and East Tennessee – Stagnant Growth Knox county grew only 20% after suffering an 18% loss of population in The removal of the Capital from Knoxville had to rub the people of East Tennessee the wrong way.

10 POLITICS  Tension by the numbers February 1861 Secession Convention vote fails by roughly 9,000 votes East Tennessee rejects the proposal 33,000 – 7,000 Many counties rejecting by 80% or greater  Unionist Conventions May 30 th Convention in Knoxville Report made no friends with their opposition. Adjourned to await the outcome of the June 8 th vote on Secession “subject to the call of the President”

11 POLITICS  Tennessee secedes from the Union June 8 th, 1861  East Tennessee Unionist Convention President T.A.R. Nelson calls for a second meeting in Greeneville on June 17 th. Unionists on the way to Greeneville attacked near Strawberry Plains by Louisiana Tigers as the passed on the tracks. Louisana Tigers ride into Greeneville during the convention and “committed some minor outrages”. Exciting time. Much lively debate, what time they were not dodging armed and angry Confederate soldiers.

12 POLITICS  Greeneville Convention Debate Opening Remarks by John Netherland T.A.R. Nelson’s Resolutions Supported by Rev. William Blount Carter and others Oliver P Temple’s Resolutions Supported by Horace Maynard and others Very heated debates but a final list of 6 Resolutions were passed by acclamation. There is some evidence to suggest that some of the participants were just ready to go home.

13 MILITARY SITUATION  Late summer 1861 in the Western Theatre  Reverend William Blount Carter leaves Tennessee for Kentucky.  Kentucky A few Union raw regiments still organizing Home Guards defending counties, loyalties suspect State Militia was forming under orders of Simon B Buckner  Tennessee Confederate Troops travelling by rail to Virginia Bridges guarded by Confederate troops Union Regiments quietly gathering

14 MILITARY SITUATION  September of 1861 in the Western Theatre  Kentucky September CSA General Polk takes Columbus Kentucky September had several Infantry and Cavalry organizations in the field. Neighboring states began sending troops to Kentucky  Tennessee CS General Zollicoffer moves into Kentucky Cumberland Gap occupied by CS Col Churchwell(4 th TN) and Rains(11 th TN)  Reverend Carter goes to Washington

15 CLOAKS & DAGGERS  Rev. William Blount Carter’s Plan

16 CLOAKS & DAGGERS  Rev. William Blount Carter’s Plan President Lincoln agrees to the plan Secretary of State Seward offers $2,500 for the cause General McClellan will keep the Army of Northern Virginia and Confederates in Middle Tennessee busy.  Return trip… Stops at Camp Dick Robinson Gen. Thomas convinces Gen. Sherman Date is set for November 8 th. Takes Daniel Fry and William Pickens back with him.

17 CLOAKS & DAGGERS  Rev. William Blount Carter’s Lieutenants Alfred Madison Cate William Cross William Pickens David Fry Daniel Stover

18 David Fry William Pickens William Cross CLOAKS & DAGGERS  Colonel Daniel Stover, 4 th Tennessee Infantry Daniel Stover

19 CLOAKS & DAGGERS  Captain David Fry, Co F, 2 nd Tennessee Infantry David Fry

20 CLOAKS & DAGGERS  Colonel William Cowan Pickens, 3 rd Tennessee Infantry William Pickens

21 CLOAKS & DAGGERS  William Cross William Cross

22 CLOAKS & DAGGERS  Captain Alfred Madison Cate, Co G, 6 th Tennessee Infantry Alfred Madison Cate

23 STARTS AND STUMBLES  Reverend Carter had his men set.  October 16 th 1861  October 21 st 1861  October 28 th 1861  Can’t unring the bell

24 STARTS AND STUMBLES  October 16th 1861 – Sherman meets with SecWar Cameron McClellan 100, Miles Fremont 60,000 Sherman 18, Miles 300+ Miles

25 STARTS AND STUMBLES  October 21 st 1861 – Battle at Camp Wildcat Zollicoffer Thomas

26 STARTS AND STUMBLES  October 28 th 1861 – Battle at Camp Wildcat Sherman Buckner AS Johnston

27 CLOAKS & DAGGERS  Rev. William Blount Carter’s Plan already in trouble…  But the show must go on…

28 CLOAKS & DAGGERS  November 9 th, 1861

29 David Fry William Pickens William Cross EXECUTION  Colonel Daniel Stover, 4 th Tennessee Infantry Daniel Stover -Daniel Stover -B: 14 NOV 1826 Carter, Tennessee, USA -D: 18 DEC 1864 Nashville, Davidson, Tennessee, USA -Married Mary Johnson - B: 8 May 1832 Greeneville, Greene, Tennessee, USA - D: 19 April 1883 Bluff City, Sullivan, Tennessee, USA - Daughter of Senator Andrew Johnson "Only one of these bridges, the one over the Holston, was destroyed. The other was guarded by Captain David McClelland's company of Confederate Infantry, and the attempt at its destruction was therefore abandoned.. There was a guard of two men at the Watauga Bridge. These were easily overpowered and captured. Their lives were spared on the promise that they would not reveal the names of the men who burned the bridge. Yet they went away and disclosed the names of all whom they recognized.“ East Tennessee and the Civil War, OP Temple, p385

30 EXECUTION  Captain David Fry, Co F, 2 nd Tennessee Infantry David Fry Captain David Fry B: 1825 Tennessee, USA D: bef 1880 Married Catherine S Goreley B: 1824 Tennessee, USA Bridge successfully destroyed. Overall Success in doubt 5 of the 8 men involved hanged by Confederate Authorities Captain Fry mustered each member of his party into Co F, 2 nd East Tennessee the night before.

31 EXECUTION  Jacob and Henry Harmon David Fry Jacob Harmon B: 2 JUN 1818 Midway, Greene County, Tennessee, USA D: 17 DEC 1861 Knoxville, Knox County, Tennessee, USA Married 3 November 1837 Greene, Tennessee, United States Malinda Self B: 26 Jan 1818 Midway, Greene, Tennessee, USA D: 30 May 1872 Midway, Greene, Tennessee, USA Henry Harmon B: 3 Sept 1839 Midway, Greene, Tennessee, United States D: 17 Dec 1861 Knoxville, Tennessee, USA Pottertown \ Harmon Cemetery Greeneville Tennessee Find A Grave Memorial#

32 EXECUTION  Jacob Madison Hinshaw & Henry Fry David Fry Jacob Madison Hinshaw B: 8 DEC 1840 Hawkins County, Tennessee, USA D: 30 NOV 1861 Greene County, Tennessee, USA Married Almarinda Walker B: About 1839 Tennessee, USA D: 18 October 1913 Hawkins County, Tennessee, USA Henry Fry B: 7 DEC 1823 Greene County, Tennessee, USA D: 30 NOV 1861 Greeneville, Greene County, Tennessee, USA Married 9 Nov 1843 Greene County Tennessee Maria Barbara Wampler B: 11 Nov 1824 Mosheim, Greene County Tennessee D: 10 Jun 1899 Find A Grave# Blue Springs Cemetery, Mosheim, Greene County Tennessee Jacob M Hinshaw Private Co F 2 nd Tennessee Infantry Long Cemetery Hawkins County Tennessee

33 EXECUTION  Christopher Alexander Haun David Fry Christopher Alexander Haun B: 14 SEP 1821 Greene County, Tennessee, USA D: 11 Dec 1861 Knoxville, Knox County, Tennessee, USA Married 29 Dec 1846 Greene, Tennessee Elizabeth Cobble B: 1820 Greene, Tennessee, United States D: 10 Mar 1909 Greene, Tennessee, United States Concord Baptist Church Cemetery 436 Concord Road, Mohawk, TN 37810

34 EXECUTION  Harrison Self David Fry Harrison Self B: 15 Jul 1813 Gap Creek Valley, Greene, Tennessee, United States D: 23 May 1888 Rush, Indiana, United States Married Sarah Camias Cobble B: 28 Aug 1810 Tennessee, United States D: 1863 Blue Springs, Greene, Tennessee, United States

35 EXECUTION  Hugh Andrew Self David Fry Hugh Andrew Self B: 9 Apr 1845 Blue Springs, Greene, Tennessee, United States D: 20 Oct 1910 McDonald County, Missouri, USA Married 26 Aug 1875 Greene, Tennessee Happy M Ealy B: Oct 1858 Greene, Tennessee, USA D: 27 Jan 1924 McDonald, Missouri, USA Find A Grave Memorial# Owsley Union Cemetery Longview (McDonald County) McDonald County Missouri, USA

36 EXECUTION  Colonel William Cowan Pickens, 3 rd Tennessee Infantry William Pickens Colonel William Cowan Pickens B: 07 MAR 1825 Sevier County, Tennessee, USA D: 8 Apr 1872 Sevier, Tennessee, United States Married 11 Feb 1847 Blount, Tennessee,USA Susan McCammon B: 1830 Lowes Ferry, Blount, Tennessee, United States D: 1886 Blount, Tennessee, United States Eusebia Cemetery, Eusebia, Sevier Co Tennesse

37 EXECUTION  Colonel Daniel Mack Ray, 2 nd Tennessee Cavalry William Pickens Colonel Daniel Mack Ray B: 27 MAR 1833 Yancey County, NC, USA D: 1913 Woodson County, Kansas, USA Married Louise A. Farris B: Mar 1828 Kentucky D: 1900 Woodson County, Kansas Yates Center Woodson County Kansas, USA Plot: Block 11 # 49 Find A Grave Memorial#

38 EXECUTION  Other members of the team William Pickens -James Montgomery (became Captain in the US Volunteers) -Abe Smith -B.F. Franklin -White Underdown (became Lieutenant in the US Volunteers) -William Montgomery (became Captain in the US Volunteers) -Elijah Gamble (became Lieutenant in the US Volunteers) -"a father and a son - the son objecting to the mention of either his father's or his own name." -All men from Sevier County Private James Keelan B: 1828 Virginia D: 12 Feb 1895 Bristol, Sullivan County, Tennessee, USA Married 25 Oct 1846 Knox, Tennessee Mary Hoeper B: abt 1825 Tennessee D:

39 EXECUTION  William Cross William Cross There is little information on the fate or identity of the men involved in the effort to burn the bridge at Loudon. A certain William Cross is mentioned by Temple. There is a William Cross associated with the 3 rd Tennessee Infantry: Soldier's Rank In:Major Soldier's Rank Out:Colonel Alternate name: Film Number:M392 roll 4 Src: NPS Soldiers and Sailors The other leaders assigned to bridges eventually found their way to a similar rank in one of the early Tennessee Union organizations(Infantry and Cavalry) so Col. William Cross may well be the man. Chances are the bridge was heavily guarded and the attempt was abandoned.

40 EXECUTION  Captain Alfred Madison Cate, Co G, 6 th Tennessee Infantry Alfred Madison Cate Captain Alfred Madison Cate B: 20 Dec 1822 McMinn County, Tennessee, USA D: 13 Sep 1871 Sweetwater, Monroe, Tennessee, USA Married 7 Nov 1843 Monroe Tennessee USA Louisa J Walker B: 1824 Tennessee, United States D: aft 1900 Buried in Wells Cemetery, Hamilton County, Tennessee

41 EXECUTION  Captain Alfred Madison Cate Adam Thomas Jesse F Cleveland Eli Cleveland Thomas L Cate (Brother of A.M. Cate)  Hiwassee Bridge Thomas L Cates B: 3 Jun 1833 Tennessee, USA D: 19 Mar 1907 Cleveland, Bradley, Tennessee, USA Married 1860 Tennessee, United States Margaret Hall B: 28 Dec 1842 Bradley County, Tennessee D: 25 Jun 1918 Cleveland, Bradley, Tennessee Fort Hill Cemetery Cleveland Bradley County Tennessee, USA Plot: 14, Plot 056 Find A Grave Memorial#

42 EXECUTION  Captain Alfred Madison Cate W.T. Cate (Brother of A.M. Cate) W.H. Crowder  Chattanooga Bridge William T Cate B: 13 Jan 1830 Tennessee, United States D: 14 Sep 1882 Tennessee, United States Married Malissa J Overton B: abt 1834 Tennessee, United States D: 21 Jun 1864 Sheriff William T. Cate Hamilton County Sheriff's Department, Tennessee End of Watch: Thursday, September 14, 1882 “Sheriff Cate and Deputy Sheriff John Conway were shot and killed when a prisoner they were transporting escaped.”

43 EXECUTION  Captain Alfred Madison Cate R.B. Rogan James D. Keener  Bridgeport Alabama

44 LESSONS LEARNED  The East Tennessee Rebellion was an emotional response.  The resulting persecution had an enormous impact.  The Failure of Federal Army Commanders to send that Military Column provides one of the greatest “What ifs” of the Civil War.

45 THANK YOU!  Questions?  Family Group Sheets, links to my Ancestry Trees, this presentation, and all images are available at my blog:


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