Presentation on theme: "Ancient Egypt. “Egypt is the Gift of the Nile” Herodotus: 400 BC (Greek Historian)"— Presentation transcript:
“Egypt is the Gift of the Nile” Herodotus: 400 BC (Greek Historian)
The Nile River The Nile River is the world’s longest running river!
The Nile River The Nile River runs continually for over 4400 Miles!
The Nile River The Blue Nile and the White Nile are the source rivers of the true Nile. In ancient times the Nile River flowed through Nubia first and then through Egypt! White Nile Blue Nile Khartoum
White Nile The Main source of the White Nile is Victoria Lake. Lake Victoria lies deep in the middle of the African continent along the borders of Tanzania, Kenya and Uganda
Lake Victoria Lake Victoria is the source of the White Nile River
Victoria Falls The largest waterfall in the world!
Blue Nile The Blue Nile originates at Lake Tania in the Ethiopian Highlands! Lake Tania
Blue Nile Lake Tania – located in the Ethiopian Highlands - is the source of the Blue Nile!
Blue Nile The Blue Nile picks up dark fertile soil along its path. It carries this rich muddy soil to the main trunk of the river!
Khartoum Khartoum: Where the White Nile and the Blue Nile converge!
The Nile River At Khartoum the Blue Nile and the White Nile meet to form the main trunk of the Nile River
Lower Egypt Lower Egypt is located in the northern area of Egypt!
Upper Egypt Upper Egypt is located in the region to the south of Lower Egypt! The terminology "Upper" and "Lower" derives from the flow of the Nile from the highlands of East Africa northwards to sea level and the Mediterranean Sea.
The Nile River The Nile’s current flows from South to North!
The Nile River The “Etesian Winds” of Egypt blow South!
The Nile River Rich Fertile soil stretches approximately 6 miles out from each side of the river bank.
The Nile River After you travel approximately 6 miles from the river you reach mountains and desert!
The Desert If you travel past the nearby mountains you reach the uninhabitable open desert!
The Nile River An overhead view of Egypt at night displays how almost all Egyptian cities and towns are within a few miles of the Nile River!
The Nile River The Nile River flooded every year between June and September – in a season the Egyptians called Akhet: - “The Inundation.”
The Inundation The rich fertile soil left behind after the Nile’s flood was called “Silt!” It was also called “Kemet” which means “Dark Land”
Cataracts There are six cataracts along the Nile River!
Cataracts Cataracts are fast moving white-water rapids!
Cataracts The first cataract separated ancient Egypt from ancient Nubia (Sudan)
Cataracts Between the First and Second cataracts was Lower Nubia! Between the Second and Sixth cataracts was Upper Nubia!
Lower Nubia The land of Lower Nubia (Sudan) was mountainous. It had a relatively low population and had very little fertile ground!
Upper Nubia Upper Nubia (Sudan) possessed much fertile ground. It had more kingdoms – cities – towns - and was highly populated
The Natural Boundaries of Egypt Sahara Desert Eastern Desert Red Sea Mediterranean Sea Egypt has four natural protecting boundaries. The Sahara Desert to the west. The Eastern Desert to the east. The Red Sea and the Mediterranean Sea.
The Sahara Desert The Sahara desert lies to the west of Egypt. It is the world's largest hot desert and covers about 3,500,000 square miles of area within its boundaries.
The Eastern Desert The Eastern Desert lies to the east of Egypt. It was once known as the Eastern Sahara Desert.
The Red Sea The Red Sea covers an area of almost 170,000 miles. For the ancient Egyptians it provided a strong natural barrier from enemy attack.
Mediterranean Sea The Nile River empties into the Mediterranean Sea. The Sea lies to the north of Egypt and served as a powerful obstacle against invasion.
Natural Boundaries: A blessing for ancient Egypt! Sahara Desert Unlike the open areas of Mesopotamia – where wars and conflict were constant – The natural boundaries of ancient Egypt... The Mediterranean Sea The Red Sea The Sahara Desert The Eastern Desert... provided protective barriers against enemy invasions and attacks. This allowed the Egyptian civilization to prosper and grow without outside interference.
The Nile Delta The Nile Delta is where the river ends. It branches out into numerous tributaries and streams – emptying into the Mediterranean Sea.
The Nile Delta The Nile Delta is a triangular shaped strip of waterways and fertile marshy soil – Great for Farming!
The Nile Delta The word Delta is derived from the letter D in the Greek Alphabet! = Delta
Notes 400 BC - Greek historian Herodotus wrote, “Egypt is the Gift of the Nile!” The Nile River is the world’s longest running river – 4400 miles. The Blue Nile and the White Nile are the source rivers of the true Nile. The Main source of the White Nile is Victoria Lake. Victoria Falls is the largest waterfall in the world. The Blue Nile originates at Lake Tania in the Ethiopian Highlands. The Blue Nile carries rich fertile soil to the main trunk of the Nile River. The white Nile and the Blue Nile meet at Khartoum to form the main trunk of the Nile. Lower Egypt is located in the northern area of Egypt. Upper Egypt is located in the region to the south of Lower Egypt. The Nile’s current flows from South to North. The “Etesian Winds” of Egypt blow to the South. Rich Fertile soil stretches approximately 6 miles out from each side of the river bank. After you travel approximately 6 miles from the river you reach mountains and desert!
Notes The Nile River flooded every year between June and September. The ancient Egyptians called this flood the “ Inundation.” The rich fertile soil left behind after the Nile’s flood was called “Silt!” It was also called “Kemet” which means “Dark Land” There are six cataracts along the Nile River. Cataracts are fast moving white-water rapids. The first cataract separated ancient Egypt from ancient Nubia (Sudan). Between the First and Second cataracts was Lower Nubia! It was mountainous. Between the Second and Sixth cataracts was Upper Nubia! It possessed fertile land. The natural boundaries of ancient Egypt - the Mediterranean Sea - the Red Sea - the Sahara Desert and the Eastern Desert - provided protective barriers against enemy invasions and attacks. The Nile Delta is a triangular shaped strip of waterways that empties into the Mediterranean Sea. It is covered with fertile marshy soil that is great for farming. The word Delta is derived from the letter D in the Greek Alphabet.
Ancient Egyptian Rulers Pharaoh: An ancient Egyptian King! The Pharaoh had Absolute Power! The Pharaoh was a god to the people of ancient Egypt – he was the “Living Horus” (God who ruled the earth) Originally the word pharaoh meant “Royal Palace” or “Great House”
Dynasty A dynasty is a family of rulers! It is generational – passed on from one son to the next oldest son – until a new family and dynasty takes over! Ancient Egypt had 31 dynasties!
Regent A Regent rules for a child king until the child is old enough to rule!
Hatshepsut Hatshepsut was the daughter of the Pharaoh Thutmose I She was the stepsister and wife of the Pharaoh Thutmose II She was also the Stepmother and Regent for the Pharaoh Thutmose III
Queen Hatshepsut Ca BC Hatshepsut declared Herself Pharaoh! ( Not allowed for Women )
Queen Hatshepsut Hatshepsut ruled Egypt for almost 22 years while her stepson Thutmose III waited angrily to take power! She refused to yield leadership and ruled with skill and energy.
Queen Hatshepsut She had statues created all over Egypt displaying an image of herself as a Man!... with a Beard! Her death in 1458 BC is still a mystery. Did she die of a cancer or was she poisoned? No one knows!
Hatshepsut The temple at Deir el-Bahari Hatshepsut built a complex of mortuary tombs located on the west bank of the Nile, opposite the city of Luxor, Egypt. Mummified remains of Queen Hatshepsut
Thutmose III Stepson of Hatshepsut Became Pharaoh of Egypt in 1458 BC One of ancient Egypt’s Greatest Rulers
Thutmose III Thutmose III was ancient Egypt’s greatest conquering Pharaoh! He conquered Nubia – Phoenicia – Syria - and Mesopotamia!
Thutmose III He is known as the “Napoleon of Egypt” because of his military genius! Thutmose III was well educated and loved to read! He was generous and merciful to the many people he conquered!
Ancient Egypt Three Major Historical Periods Old Kingdom 2700 – 2200 BC Pharaoh Khufu Built the Great Pyramid at Giza Pharaoh Khafre Built the Great Sphinx Built 2 nd Great Pyramid at Giza Pharaoh Menkaure Built 3 rd Great Pyramid at Giza Middle Kingdom 2200 – 1800 BC Expansion of Kingdom Into Nubia Building Projects Irrigation – Canal connecting Nile to Red Sea God Osiris Supreme Book of the Dead becomes guide to the Afterlife New Kingdom 1800 – 1100 BC Famous Pharaohs: Hatshepsut Thutmose III Tutenkhamen Ramses II Taharka Alexander conquers Egypt 332 BC
Notes Pharaoh: An ancient Egyptian King - He had Absolute Power – A God: The Living Horus A dynasty is a family of rulers - Ancient Egypt had 31 dynasties A Regent rules for a child king until the child is old enough to take power Hatshepsut: Daughter of Pharaoh Thutmose I - stepsister and wife of the Pharaoh Thutmose II - Stepmother and Regent for the Pharaoh Thutmose III Hatshepsut was the first woman to declare herself Pharaoh – She ruled for 22 years – She had statues of herself made in the image of a man with a beard Thutmose III was the stepson of Hatshepsut – He became Egypt’s greatest conqueror – Thutmose III was well educated and generous to his defeated foes Ancient Egypt is divided into 3 Historical Eras: Old Kingdom – Middle Kingdom and New Kingdom Old Kingdom Era is best known for the building of the Great Pyramids. These pyramids were built at Giza by the pharaohs Khufu, his son Khafre, and his grandson Menkaure – Khafre also built the Great Sphinx The Middle Kingdom is a time of building projects – new cities – and rise of the god Osiris The New Kingdom is a time of the most famous pharaohs – the New Kingdom ends when Alexander the Great conquers Egypt
Ten Famous Pharaohs: Ramses II Khafre Menkaure Hatshepsut Thutmose III Amenhotep Tutenkhamen Menes Khufu Cleopatra
Menes Pharaoh and founding king of the first ancient Egyptian Dynasty! The Pharaoh Menes united the kingdoms of Lower and Upper Egypt under one Crown! ca – 3050 BC
Khufu Ca. 2589–2566 BC The Pharaoh Khufu (Also known to the Greeks as the Pharaoh Cheops) Built the “Great Pyramid” at Giza!
Khufu Khufu’s Great Pyramid was designed as his final resting place – his eternal tomb. It is the only one of the 7 Ancient Wonders of the World to still exist!
The Great Pyramid The Great Pyramid contained over 2,300,000 stone blocks! Each stone block had an average weight of over 5,000 pounds!
Khafre 2558 BC and 2532 BC The Pharaoh Khafre was the son of Khufu Khafre built the 2 nd Great Pyramid at Giza In honor of his father – He had his Pyramid built 2 feet shorter in height Khafre also built the famous “Great Sphinx” The Sphinx is the Guardian of the Pyramids
Menkaure The Pharaoh Menkaure was the son of Khafre He was the Grandson of Khufu He built the 3 rd and final of the Great Pyramids at Giza!
The Great Pyramids
Hatshepsut The first woman to declare herself Pharaoh! Stepmom and Regent to Thutmose III! Ruled for 22 years! 1508–1458 BC
Thutmose III Stepson of Hatshepsut! Ancient Egypt’s Greatest Conquering Pharaoh! 1479–1425 BC
Amenhotep IV - (Akenhaten) The Pharaoh Amenhotep IV changed his name to Akhenaten in honor of the Sun God: Aten Akhenaten changed the religion of ancient Egypt! He banned worship of the ancient Gods & Goddesses The people and High Priests were only allowed to worship the Sun God Aten The name Akhenaten means “In Service of the Sun!” 1353–1336 BC
Tutenkhamen King Tut Son of Akhenaten Boy King Became Pharaoh at age 9 Died at age 18 Ca. 1332–1323 BC,
Tutenkhamen Tutankhamun is remembered for his tomb in the Valley of the Kings It was discovered intact by British archaeologist Howard Carter It was packed with amazing treasure.
Tutenkhamen Howard Carter discovered King Tut’s tomb in 1922 In the Valley of the Kings
Tutenkhamen Lord Carnarvon Lord Carnarvon’s Estate in England Lord Carnarvon sponsored Howard Carter’s digging expeditions in Egypt
The Tomb of Tutenkhamen
Tutenkhamen King Tut’s Mummy
Ramses II The Pharaoh Ramses II Reigned B.C He had over 100 Wives... and 200 children He lived to the approximate unheard of age of 96 He conquered the Hittites at the famous Battle of Kadesh He built the magnificent Temple of Abu Simbel
Ramses II Ramses II was also known as Ramses The Great The chief queen of Ramses II was Nefertari. Queen Nefertari
Ramses II Ramses II Temple at Abu Simbel
Ramses II Ramses II Mummy!
Cleopatra Last Ruler of Ancient Egypt Made Queen by the Roman Leader Julius Caesar
Cleopatra Last of the Ptolemy Dynasty Rulers Lover of Julius Caesar Wife of the Roman Ruler Marc Antony
Cleopatra After her husband Marc Antony’s defeat and death - Cleopatra committed suicide 30 BC! Thus ended the last of the 31 dynasties of ancient Egypt! Rome made Egypt a Roman Province and there were no more Egyptian Pharaohs!
Notes: The Pharaohs Menes: The first Pharaoh - Founding king of the first ancient Egyptian Dynasty – He united lower and upper Egypt under one crown Khufu: (Also known by the Greeks as the Pharaoh Cheops) – Built the “Great Pyramid” at Giza – The Pyramid contained over 2, 300,000 stone blocks – Each block had an average weight of over 5,000 pounds – The pyramid was built to be his tomb Khafre: The Pharaoh Khafre was the son of Khufu – He built the 2 nd Great Pyramid at Giza – Khafre also built the famous “Great Sphinx” as Guardian of the pyramids Menkaure: The Pharaoh Menkaure was the son of Khafre – He built the third and final of the Great Pyramids at Giza Hatshepsut: She was the first woman to declare herself pharaoh – She was the regent to Thutmose III – She ruled for 22 years Thutmose III: He was the stepson of Hatshepsut – He is famous for being ancient Egypt’s greatest conqueror – The “Napoleon of Egypt”
Notes Amenhotep IV: He changed his name to Akhenaten in honor of the Sun God: Aten - He banned worship of the ancient Gods & Goddesses - The name Akhenaten means “In Service of the Sun!” Tutenkhamen: He was crowned pharaoh at age 9 – He died at age 18 – His tomb was found in the Valley of the Kings completely intact by Howard Carter in 1922 – Carter’s expeditions were sponsored by a British Egyptologist, Lord Cararvon King Tut’s tomb was filled with gold and treasure – Including Tutenkhamen’s world famous gold Death Mask Ramses II: Known as Ramses The Great – Had over 100 wives and 200 children – Lived to the approximate age of 96 – Defeated the Hittites at Kadesh – Built the famous temple at Abu Simbel Cleopatra: Last Ruler of Ancient Egypt - Made Queen by the Roman Leader Julius Caesar Last of the Ptolemy Dynasty Rulers - Wife of the Roman Ruler Marc Antony - Committed suicide 30 BC - The last ruler of the 31 dynasties of ancient Egypt