2“Egypt is the Gift of the Nile” Herodotus: 400 BC (Greek Historian)
3The Nile River is the world’s longest running river!
4The Nile River runs continually for over 4400 Miles!
5White Nile are the source rivers of the true Nile. The Nile RiverThe Blue Nile and theWhite Nile are the source rivers of the true Nile.In ancient times the Nile River flowed through Nubia first and then through Egypt!KhartoumWhite NileBlue Nile
6The Main source of the White Nile is Victoria Lake. Lake Victoria lies deep in the middle of the African continent along the borders of Tanzania, Kenya and Uganda
7Lake Victoria is the source of the White Nile River
8The largest waterfall in the world! Victoria FallsThe largest waterfall in the world!
9The Blue Nile originates at Lake Tania in the Ethiopian Highlands!
10Blue NileLake Tania – located in the Ethiopian Highlands - is the source of the Blue Nile!
11Blue Nile The Blue Nile picks up dark fertile soil along its path. It carries this rich muddy soil to the main trunk of the river!
12Where the White Nile and the Blue Nile converge! KhartoumKhartoum:Where the White Nile and the Blue Nile converge!
13The Nile RiverAt Khartoum the Blue Nile and the White Nile meet to form the main trunk of the Nile River
14Lower Egypt is located in the northern area of Egypt!
15Upper Egypt is located in the region to the south of Lower Egypt! The terminology "Upper" and "Lower" derives from the flow of the Nile from the highlands of East Africa northwards to sea level and the Mediterranean Sea.
16The Nile’s current flows from The Nile RiverThe Nile’s current flows fromSouth to North!
17The “Etesian Winds” of Egypt blow South! The Nile RiverThe “Etesian Winds” of Egypt blow South!
18The Nile River Rich Fertile soil stretches approximately 6 miles out from each side of the river bank.
19The Nile River After you travel approximately 6 miles from the river you reach mountains and desert!
20The Desert If you travel past the nearby mountains you reach the uninhabitable open desert!
21The Nile RiverAn overhead view of Egypt at night displays how almost all Egyptian cities and towns are within a few miles of the Nile River!
22The Nile RiverThe Nile River flooded every year between June and September –in a season the Egyptians called Akhet: - “The Inundation.”
23It was also called “Kemet” which means “Dark Land” The InundationThe rich fertile soil left behind after the Nile’s flood was called “Silt!”It was also called “Kemet” which means “Dark Land”
26The first cataract separated ancient Egypt from ancient Nubia (Sudan)
27Cataracts Between the First and Second cataracts was Lower Nubia! Between the Second and Sixth cataracts was Upper Nubia!
28Lower Nubia The land of Lower Nubia (Sudan) was mountainous. It had a relatively low population and had very little fertile ground!
29Upper Nubia Upper Nubia (Sudan) possessed much fertile ground. It had more kingdoms – cities – towns - and was highly populated
30The Natural Boundaries of Egypt Mediterranean SeaSahara DesertEastern DesertEgypt has four natural protecting boundaries. The Sahara Desert to the west. The Eastern Desert to the east. The Red Sea and the Mediterranean Sea.Red Sea
31and covers about 3,500,000 square miles of area within its boundaries. The Sahara DesertThe Sahara desert lies to the west of Egypt. It is the world's largest hot desertand covers about 3,500,000 square miles of area within its boundaries.
32The Eastern Desert The Eastern Desert lies to the east of Egypt. It was once known as the Eastern Sahara Desert.
33The Red SeaThe Red Sea covers an area of almost 170,000 miles. For the ancient Egyptians it provided a strong natural barrier from enemy attack.
34Mediterranean SeaThe Nile River empties into the Mediterranean Sea. The Sea lies tothe north of Egypt and served as a powerful obstacle against invasion.
35Natural Boundaries: A blessing for ancient Egypt! Unlike the open areas of Mesopotamia – where wars and conflict were constant –The natural boundaries of ancient Egypt . . .The Mediterranean SeaThe Red SeaThe Sahara DesertThe Eastern Desertprovided protective barriers against enemy invasions and attacks. This allowed the Egyptian civilization to prosper and grow without outside interference.Sahara Desert
36The Nile DeltaThe Nile Delta is where the river ends. It branches out into numerous tributaries and streams – emptying into the Mediterranean Sea.
37The Nile DeltaThe Nile Delta is a triangular shaped strip of waterwaysand fertile marshy soil – Great for Farming!
38The word Delta is derived from the letter D in the The Nile DeltaThe word Delta is derived from the letter D in theGreek Alphabet! = Delta
39Notes400 BC - Greek historian Herodotus wrote, “Egypt is the Gift of the Nile!”The Nile River is the world’s longest running river – 4400 miles.The Blue Nile and the White Nile are the source rivers of the true Nile.The Main source of the White Nile is Victoria Lake.Victoria Falls is the largest waterfall in the world.The Blue Nile originates at Lake Tania in the Ethiopian Highlands.The Blue Nile carries rich fertile soil to the main trunk of the Nile River.The white Nile and the Blue Nile meet at Khartoum to form the main trunk of the Nile.Lower Egypt is located in the northern area of Egypt.Upper Egypt is located in the region to the south of Lower Egypt.The Nile’s current flows from South to North.The “Etesian Winds” of Egypt blow to the South.Rich Fertile soil stretches approximately 6 miles out from each side of the river bank.After you travel approximately 6 miles from the river you reach mountains and desert!
40Notes The Nile River flooded every year between June and September. The ancient Egyptians called this flood the “ Inundation.”The rich fertile soil left behind after the Nile’s flood was called “Silt!”It was also called “Kemet” which means “Dark Land”There are six cataracts along the Nile River.Cataracts are fast moving white-water rapids.The first cataract separated ancient Egypt from ancient Nubia (Sudan).Between the First and Second cataracts was Lower Nubia! It was mountainous.Between the Second and Sixth cataracts was Upper Nubia! It possessed fertile land.The natural boundaries of ancient Egypt - the Mediterranean Sea - the Red Sea -the Sahara Desert and the Eastern Desert - provided protective barriers against enemy invasions and attacks.The Nile Delta is a triangular shaped strip of waterways that empties into the Mediterranean Sea. It is covered with fertile marshy soil that is great for farming .The word Delta is derived from the letter D in the Greek Alphabet.
41Ancient Egyptian Rulers Pharaoh: An ancient Egyptian King!The Pharaoh had Absolute Power!The Pharaoh was a god to the people of ancient Egypt – he was the “Living Horus” (God who ruled the earth)Originally the word pharaoh meant“Royal Palace” or “Great House”
42A dynasty is a family of rulers! Ancient Egypt had 31 dynasties! It is generational – passed on from one son to the next oldest son – until a new family and dynasty takes over!Ancient Egypt had 31 dynasties!
43A Regent rules for a child king until the child is old enough to rule!
44Hatshepsut Hatshepsut was the daughter of the Pharaoh Thutmose I She was the stepsister and wife of the Pharaoh Thutmose IIShe was also the Stepmother and Regent for the Pharaoh Thutmose III
45( Not allowed for Women ) Queen HatshepsutCa BCHatshepsut declaredHerself Pharaoh!( Not allowed for Women )
46She refused to yield leadership and ruled Queen HatshepsutHatshepsut ruled Egypt for almost 22 years while her stepson Thutmose III waited angrily to take power!She refused to yield leadership and ruledwith skill and energy.
47Queen HatshepsutShe had statues created all over Egypt displaying an image of herself as a Man!. . . with a Beard!Her death in 1458 BC is still a mystery. Did she die of a cancer or was she poisoned? No one knows!
48HatshepsutThe temple at Deir el-BahariHatshepsut built a complex of mortuary tombs located on the west bank of the Nile, opposite the city of Luxor, Egypt.Mummified remains of Queen Hatshepsut
49Became Pharaoh of Egypt in 1458 BC Thutmose IIIStepson of HatshepsutBecame Pharaoh of Egypt in 1458 BCOne of ancient Egypt’sGreatest Rulers
50He conquered Nubia – Phoenicia – Syria - and Mesopotamia! Thutmose IIIThutmose III was ancient Egypt’s greatest conquering Pharaoh!He conquered Nubia – Phoenicia – Syria - and Mesopotamia!
51Thutmose IIIHe is known as the “Napoleon of Egypt” because of his military genius!Thutmose III was well educated and loved to read!He was generous and merciful to the many people he conquered!
52Ancient Egypt Three Major Historical Periods Old Kingdom2700 – 2200 BCPharaoh KhufuBuilt the Great Pyramid at GizaPharaoh KhafreBuilt the Great SphinxBuilt 2nd Great Pyramid at GizaPharaoh MenkaureBuilt 3rd Great Pyramid at GizaMiddle Kingdom2200 – 1800 BCExpansion of KingdomInto NubiaBuilding ProjectsIrrigation – Canal connecting Nile to Red SeaGod Osiris SupremeBook of the Dead becomes guide to the AfterlifeNew Kingdom1800 – 1100 BCFamous Pharaohs:HatshepsutThutmose IIITutenkhamenRamses IITaharkaAlexander conquersEgypt BC
53NotesPharaoh: An ancient Egyptian King - He had Absolute Power – A God: The Living HorusA dynasty is a family of rulers - Ancient Egypt had 31 dynastiesA Regent rules for a child king until the child is old enough to take powerHatshepsut: Daughter of Pharaoh Thutmose I - stepsister and wife of the Pharaoh Thutmose II - Stepmother and Regent for the Pharaoh Thutmose IIIHatshepsut was the first woman to declare herself Pharaoh – She ruled for 22 years – She had statues of herself made in the image of a man with a beardThutmose III was the stepson of Hatshepsut – He became Egypt’s greatest conqueror – Thutmose III was well educated and generous to his defeated foesAncient Egypt is divided into 3 Historical Eras: Old Kingdom – Middle Kingdom andNew KingdomOld Kingdom Era is best known for the building of the Great Pyramids. These pyramids were built at Giza by the pharaohs Khufu, his son Khafre, and his grandson Menkaure – Khafre also built the Great SphinxThe Middle Kingdom is a time of building projects – new cities – and rise of the god OsirisThe New Kingdom is a time of the most famous pharaohs – the New Kingdom ends when Alexander the Great conquers Egypt
55Menes The Pharaoh Menes united the kingdoms of Lower and ca – 3050 BCPharaoh and founding king of the first ancient Egyptian Dynasty!The Pharaoh Menes united the kingdoms of Lower andUpper Egypt under one Crown!
56Khufu The Pharaoh Khufu Ca. 2589–2566 BCThe Pharaoh Khufu(Also known to the Greeks as the Pharaoh Cheops)Built the “Great Pyramid” at Giza!
57KhufuKhufu’s Great Pyramid was designed as his final resting place – his eternal tomb.It is the only one of the 7 Ancient Wonders of the World to still exist!
58The Great PyramidThe Great Pyramid contained over 2,300,000 stone blocks!Each stone block had an average weight of over 5,000 pounds!
59Khafre The Pharaoh Khafre was the son of Khufu Khafre built the 2nd Great Pyramid at GizaIn honor of his father – He had his Pyramid built 2 feet shorter in heightKhafre also built the famous “Great Sphinx”The Sphinx is the Guardian of the Pyramids2558 BC and 2532 BC
65Amenhotep IV - (Akenhaten) The Pharaoh Amenhotep IV changed his name to Akhenaten in honor of the Sun God: AtenAkhenaten changed the religion of ancient Egypt!He banned worship of the ancient Gods & GoddessesThe people and High Priests were only allowed to worship the Sun God AtenThe name Akhenaten means“In Service of the Sun!”1353–1336 BC
66Tutenkhamen King Tut Son of Akhenaten Boy King Became Pharaoh at age 9 Died at age 18Ca. 1332–1323 BC,
67TutenkhamenTutankhamun is remembered for his tomb in the Valley of the KingsIt was discovered intact by British archaeologist Howard CarterIt was packed with amazing treasure.
68Tutenkhamen Howard Carter discovered King Tut’s tomb in 1922 In the Valley of the Kings
69Lord Carnarvon sponsored Howard Carter’s digging expeditions in Egypt TutenkhamenLord Carnarvon’s Estate in EnglandLord CarnarvonLord Carnarvon sponsored Howard Carter’s digging expeditions in Egypt
72Ramses II The Pharaoh Ramses II Reigned 1279-1212 B.C He had over 100 Wives. . . and 200 childrenHe lived to the approximateunheard of age of 96He conquered the Hittites at the famous Battle of KadeshHe built the magnificentTemple of Abu Simbel
73Ramses II Ramses II was also known as Ramses The Great Queen NefertariRamses II was also known as Ramses The GreatThe chief queen of Ramses II was Nefertari.
76Cleopatra Last Ruler of Ancient Egypt Made Queen by the Roman Leader Julius Caesar
77Last of the Ptolemy Dynasty Rulers Wife of the Roman Ruler Marc Antony CleopatraLast of the Ptolemy Dynasty RulersLover of Julius CaesarWife of the Roman Ruler Marc Antony
78Thus ended the last of the 31 dynasties of ancient Egypt! CleopatraAfter her husband Marc Antony’s defeat and death - Cleopatra committed suicide 30 BC!Thus ended the last of the 31 dynasties of ancient Egypt!Rome made Egypt a Roman Province and there were no more Egyptian Pharaohs!
79Notes: The PharaohsMenes: The first Pharaoh - Founding king of the first ancient Egyptian Dynasty – He united lower and upper Egypt under one crownKhufu: (Also known by the Greeks as the Pharaoh Cheops) – Built the “Great Pyramid” at Giza – The Pyramid contained over 2, 300,000 stone blocks – Each block had an average weight of over 5,000 pounds – The pyramid was built to be his tombKhafre: The Pharaoh Khafre was the son of Khufu – He built the 2nd Great Pyramid at Giza – Khafre also built the famous “Great Sphinx” as Guardian of the pyramidsMenkaure: The Pharaoh Menkaure was the son of Khafre – He built the third and final of the Great Pyramids at GizaHatshepsut: She was the first woman to declare herself pharaoh – She was the regent to Thutmose III – She ruled for 22 yearsThutmose III: He was the stepson of Hatshepsut – He is famous for being ancient Egypt’s greatest conqueror – The “Napoleon of Egypt”
80NotesAmenhotep IV: He changed his name to Akhenaten in honor of the Sun God: Aten - He banned worship of the ancient Gods & Goddesses - The name Akhenaten means “In Service of the Sun!”Tutenkhamen: He was crowned pharaoh at age 9 – He died at age 18 – His tomb was found in the Valley of the Kings completely intact by Howard Carter in 1922 – Carter’s expeditions were sponsored by a British Egyptologist, Lord CararvonKing Tut’s tomb was filled with gold and treasure – Including Tutenkhamen’s world famous gold Death MaskRamses II: Known as Ramses The Great – Had over 100 wives and 200 children – Lived to the approximate age of 96 – Defeated the Hittites at Kadesh – Built the famous temple at Abu SimbelCleopatra: Last Ruler of Ancient Egypt - Made Queen by the Roman Leader Julius CaesarLast of the Ptolemy Dynasty Rulers - Wife of the Roman Ruler Marc Antony - Committed suicide 30 BC - The last ruler of the 31 dynasties of ancient Egypt