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EGYPT: The Gift of Nile Land of Pharaohs and Pyramids.

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Presentation on theme: "EGYPT: The Gift of Nile Land of Pharaohs and Pyramids."— Presentation transcript:

1 EGYPT: The Gift of Nile Land of Pharaohs and Pyramids

2 The Nile River Fed by two tributaries: The Blue Nile and the Atbara or the White Nile Flooding begins late July reaching its peak in August September Flood waters recede in October-November Why is this a big deal??? Makes Farming a breeze! River flows to the North, winds blow to the South! Transportation EASY! Annual fertilization! Easy Irrigation! Source of the Blue Nile in Ethiopia (above), and the source of the White Nile, Lake Victoria (below)

3 Lower Egypt Upper Egypt NILE: the Great Highway The Nile Delta

4 Egypt: Chronology Predynastic period ( B.C.) Old Kingdom ( B.C.) 1 st Intermediate Period Middle Kingdom ( B.C.) 2 nd Intermediate Period New Kingdom ( B.C.) Third Intermediate Period

5 Gebel al-Arak Knife theme of hero subduing 2 wild animals parallels with Uruk period Mesopotamia

6 Abydos Naqada Region and Royal Tombs at Abydos

7 Hedjet Deshret Pschent White Red Combined Upper Egypt Lower Egypt Upper and Lower Egypt

8 Earliest Writing earliest evidence c BC difficulties in translation appear on labels and jars to identify goods commodities and on royal commemorative art Earliest known ivory labels, Tomb of King Scorpion, Abydos, BC

9 Hieroglyphics “sacred images” Old, Middle and Late Egyptian pictographs and phonetic signs totaling about 700

10 Ma’at Meant “truth” “right behavior “ “ correct balance” Pharaoh had absolute power and rule according to ma’at justice, moral righteousness responsibility of the King that order prevailed in the universe responsible for changes in seasons and most importantly, annual flooding of the Nile symbolized as a feather

11 Old Kingdom long, unbroken period of prosperity – 432 years “The Pyramid Age” Egypt at its cultural Zenith Cultural/ Religious source of Kings power fully established “Divine Right Mandate”

12 First Pyramid: Step Pyramid of Djoser King Djoser had access to a vast workforce Evolution from the regular tomb – seen in the various stages of construction It was one big experiment tons of stone used to make addition tiers Final facing of limestone

13 Imhotep Egyptian Leonardo da Vinci - genius inventor "the one that comes in peace" “Treasurer of the King of Lower Egypt” “First After the King of Upper Egypt” “Administrator of the Great Palace” “High Priest of Heliopolis” (The real one)

14 Pyramid experimentation King Sneferu built 3 pyramids popular, good-natured king deified by later rulers Bent Pyramid Red Pyramid Maidum Pyramid

15 The GREAT PYRAMID OF CHEOPS blocks of stone Height of m would weigh approx tons

16 Estimated workmen to build the Pyramid taking 20 years

17 Giza’s Workman’s Village We have texts that talk of the workers who built the pyramids (sorry people, not aliens!) Paperwork discussing salaries paid Food subsidies etc WE HAVE THE VILLAGES WHERE THEY LIVED WHILE THEY WORKED!!!!!

18 The First Intermediate Period Short period of political breakdown in Egypt (c. 100years) Followed by Middle Kingdom Structurally not much difference between Old Kingdom & Middle Kingdom Lack of change probably led to second breakdown known as the Second Intermediate Period Instead of building Pyramids Kings of the Mid King spent their time and $$ building large forts in Nubia

19 Second Intermediate Period Period is longer than the first – c. 200 years Period where parts of Egypt are ruled by ‘foreign’ kings The Hyksos Dynasty Capital Avaris in the Delta Period of political breakdown, but still a prosperous and international period

20 New Kingdom Egypt at its most powerful Lasts for close to 500 years Egypt in control of a great deal of the N.E.

21 Luxor Temple and Obelisk New Kingdom Period

22 Hypostyle


24 New Kingdom tombs Valley of the Kings

25 Egypt: Afterlife and burial rituals ba

26 Canopic jars & Mummies

27 Pyramid Texts & Book of the Dead Old Kingdom pyramids have best collection of Pyramid texts 288 magical spells to help soul of dead king on the journey into the next world Will eventually get codified in the Book of the Dead

28 Drastic changes to Egyptian state and religion Changes his name to Akhenaten – “the glory of Aten” Erases names of other gods Removed the plural ‘gods’ from the Egyptian language Move from Polytheism to Monotheism Changes in art, more realistic depictions More depictions of the King and his Family Anemhotep IV - Akhenaten

29 Akhenaten

30 Ramesside era

31 End of the NK Whatever happened, all major NE civ. Come to an end c.1200 in a period of turmoil With the exception of Egypt who did survive the catastrophe, but in a greatly weakened state Becomes more loosely structured state, just like any other Mediterranean state A rich state, but never again an important player on the world stage

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