Presentation on theme: "EGYPT: The Gift of Nile Land of Pharaohs and Pyramids"— Presentation transcript:
1EGYPT: The Gift of Nile Land of Pharaohs and Pyramids
2The Nile RiverFed by two tributaries: The Blue Nile and the Atbara or the White NileFlooding begins late July reaching its peak in August SeptemberFlood waters recede in October-NovemberWhy is this a big deal???Makes Farming a breeze!River flows to the North, winds blow to the South!Transportation EASY!Source of the Blue Nile in Ethiopia (above), and the source of the White Nile, Lake Victoria (below)Annual fertilization!Easy Irrigation!
3NILE: the Great Highway LowerEgyptThe Nile DeltaUpperEgyptNILE: the Great Highway
4Egypt: Chronology Predynastic period (5000-2700 B.C.) Old Kingdom ( B.C.)1st Intermediate PeriodMiddle Kingdom ( B.C.)2nd Intermediate PeriodNew Kingdom ( B.C.)Third Intermediate Period
5Gebel al-Arak Knife theme of hero subduing 2 wild animals parallels with Uruk period Mesopotamia
7Hedjet Deshret Pschent White Red Combined Upper Egypt Lower Egypt Upper and Lower Egypt
8Earliest Writing earliest evidence c. 3400 BC difficulties in translationappear on labels and jars to identify goods commodities and on royalcommemorative artEarliest known ivory labels, Tomb of King Scorpion, Abydos, BC
9Hieroglyphics “sacred images” Old, Middle and Late Egyptian pictographs and phonetic signs totaling about 700
10Ma’at Meant “truth” “right behavior “ “ correct balance” Pharaoh had absolute power and rule according to ma’atjustice, moral righteousnessresponsibility of the King that order prevailed in the universeresponsible for changes in seasons and most importantly, annual flooding of the Nilesymbolized as a feather
11Old Kingdom long, unbroken period of prosperity – 432 years “The Pyramid Age”Egypt at its cultural ZenithCultural/ Religious source of Kings power fully established“Divine Right Mandate”
12First Pyramid: Step Pyramid of Djoser King Djoser had access to a vast workforceEvolution from the regular tomb – seen in the various stages of constructionIt was one big experimenttons of stone usedto make addition tiersFinal facing of limestone
13Imhotep (The real one) Egyptian Leonardo da Vinci - genius inventor "the one that comes in peace"“Treasurer of the King of Lower Egypt”“First After the King of Upper Egypt”“Administrator of the Great Palace”“High Priest of Heliopolis”
14Pyramid experimentation King Sneferu built 3 pyramidspopular, good-natured kingdeified by later rulersMaidum PyramidBent PyramidRed Pyramid
15The GREAT PYRAMID OF CHEOPS blocks of stoneHeight of m would weigh approx tons
16Estimated 36 000 workmen to build the Pyramid taking 20 years
17Giza’s Workman’s Village We have texts that talk of the workers who built the pyramids (sorry people, not aliens!)Paperwork discussing salaries paidFood subsidies etcWE HAVE THE VILLAGES WHERE THEY LIVED WHILE THEY WORKED!!!!!
18The First Intermediate Period Short period of political breakdown in Egypt (c. 100years)Followed by Middle KingdomStructurally not much difference between Old Kingdom & Middle KingdomLack of change probably led to second breakdown known as the Second Intermediate PeriodInstead of building PyramidsKings of the Mid King spenttheir time and $$ buildinglarge forts in Nubia
19Second Intermediate Period Period is longer than the first – c. 200 yearsPeriod where parts of Egypt are ruled by ‘foreign’ kingsThe Hyksos DynastyCapital Avaris in the DeltaPeriod of political breakdown, but still a prosperous and international period
20New Kingdom Egypt at its most powerful Lasts for close to 500 years Egypt in control of a great deal of the N.E.
27Pyramid Texts & Book of the Dead Old Kingdom pyramids have best collection of Pyramid texts288 magical spells to help soul of dead king on the journey into the next worldWill eventually get codified in the Book of the Dead
28Anemhotep IV - Akhenaten Drastic changes to Egyptian state and religionChanges his name to Akhenaten – “the glory of Aten”Erases names of other godsRemoved the plural ‘gods’ from the Egyptian languageMove from Polytheism to MonotheismChanges in art, more realistic depictionsMore depictions of the King and his Family
31End of the NKWhatever happened, all major NE civ. Come to an end c.1200 in a period of turmoilWith the exception of Egypt who did survive the catastrophe, but in a greatly weakened stateBecomes more loosely structured state, just like any other Mediterranean stateA rich state, but never again an important player on the world stage