Timeline For the Metropolitan Museum Interactive Timeline click here http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/ht/04/eust/ht04eust.htm
Italy Before the Romans The Art of the Etruscans
Etruria Somewhere between 900 and 800 BCE, the Italian peninsula was settled by a mysterious peoples called the Etruscans. Archaeologists suspect that they came from the eastern Mediteranean, possibly Asia Minor. We know that when they came to Italy, they brought civilization and urbanisation with them.
Studying Etruscan Art In studying Etruscan art, we must remember that much of their works did not survive to the present day.. As a result, we have a skewed perception of Etruscan art; most of the art that survives today is funerary art. From excavations at Murlo, Roselle and other city sites, it is apparent that art was a normal part of Etruscan life. In Murlo, a seventh century Etruscan villa has been unearthed, revealing large painted terracotta panels adorning the entrances. Necropolis art in the form of polychrome reliefs and frescoes hint that the Etruscans used colour to great advantage even from the earliest times. Although painted tombs are among the most famous, it should be remembered that these represent a minority, and that only the aristocratic families could afford such luxuries as tomb frescoes.
Etruscan Grave Art Fibula with Orientalizing lions from the Regolini- Galassi Tomb, Cerveteri, ca. 650- 640 BCE (P. 232 - Gardner’s)
A typical Etruscan temple Similar to a Greek temple, it served as an ornate home for cult images. Made of mud-brick, not stone, only partially reflecting Greek tradition. The columns resemble Greek Doric style, but were made of wood, unfluted, with no bases or pediment statuary. A narrow staircase led to a podium supported by columns (creating one main side, unlike Greek temples); three cellas for Zeus, Hera, and Athena. Narrative sculpture, made of terracotta not stone, was displayed along the top of the roof.
Apulu (Apollo) Apulu (Apollo), from the roof of the Portonaccio Temple, Veii, c. 510–500 BCE. Painted terracotta (hard baked clay that is painted/glazed) approximately 180 cm high.
Apulu Apulu (Apollo), from the roof of the Portonaccio Temple, Veii, Painted terracotta, detail showing stylized hair treatment.
The Necropolis ( a large cemetery) at Cerveteri Cerveteri, an important trading centre situated near Rome was one of the most important Etruscan cities. Gold jewelry and vases of particularly fine workmanship were made here.
The Necropolis at Cerveteri Today, Cerveteri is known for its monumental necropolis, one of the largest from the ancient world. It is famous for the number and wealth of the tumulus tombs discovered here. The Banditaccia, with its painted and decorated tombs, represents one of the most important archeological areas in Italy.
Tomb of the Reliefs, Cerveteri Interior of the Tomb of the Reliefs, Cerveteri, third century BCE.
Tomba caccia e pesca, (detail) Detail of fresco in the Tomb of Hunting and Fishing, Tarquinia, c. 530–520 BCE.
The Capitoline Wolf c. 500-480 BCE Capitoline Wolf, Etruscan, c. 500–480 BCE. Bronze, approx. 80 cm high. Palazzo dei Conservatori, Rome.
The Chimera of Arezzo Chimera of Arezzo, first half of fourth century BCE. Bronze, approx. 80 cm high.
Ficoroni Cista Novios Plautios, Ficoroni Cista, from Palestrina, late fourth century BCE. Bronze, approx. 80 cm. high. Used for women’s combs, brushes, etc, such cistae were commonly given as gifts to both the living and the dead. Novios Plautios was an Etruscan artist living in Rome.
Porta Marzia Porta Marzia, Etruscan city gate, Perugia, second century BCE. Note the combination of Greek and “Roman” styles”
Sarcophagus of Lars Pulena Sarcophagus of Lars Pulena, from Tarquinia, early second century BCE. Tufa, approx. 2 metres long.
Sarcophagus of Lars Pulena Sarcophagus of Lars Pulena, detail, showing Etruscan writing.
Etruscan Sarcophagus In late Etruscan sarcophagi, the matrimonial couple is no longer shown and the air of festive banqueting is gone.
Aule Metele The portrait of Aule Metele as a magistrate raising his arm to address an assembly is a supremely self-confident image. This late Etruscan statue proves that they continued to be experts in bronze casting long after the Roman came to dominate the Italian peninsula. Most likely produced in the early first century BCE when Rome gained complete domination of the Etruscan region and conferred Roman citizenship upon all the inhabitants of Italy.
From Seven Hills to Three Continents The Art of Ancient Rome
Temple of Fortuna Virillis This temple combines both Etruscan and Greek design elements. Like Greek temples, it has a porch (pronaos) with free-standing columns. Slender engaged Ionic columns are found on the sides and back -a style called pseudoperipteral.
Temple of Fortuna Virillis, 248 Etruscan influences: set on a high podium, the Temple of Fortuna Virillis has stairs only on the front facade.
Temple of Fortuna Virillis In plan, it is like Etruscan temples, with a clear front and rear facade.
Temple of Vesta or the Sibyl One of a number of temples on the ancient acropolis at Tivoli, it was built c. 60 BCE.. The peristyle of eighteen fluted Corinthian columns was of travertine.. The design and workmanship are show a knowledge of ancient Greek round temples such as the THOLOS at Delphi.
Temple of Vesta or the Sibyl Corinthian columns on the Temple of Vesta.
Sanctuary of Fortuna Primgenia Erected on a foundation of poured concrete, the Sanctuary of Fortuna Primigenia (120 - 80 BCE ) is a massive temple complex located at Palestrina just outside Rome. Built on the site of an earlier oracle, the compound spread over seven terraced levels - the whole hillside was reworked as Roman builders never turned away from the opportunity to do massive earthwork in order to create a major architectural statement.
Double Portrait from Pompeii, 263 Double portrait. "Terentius Neo" (studiosus or attorney and wife). Roman fresco, 1st century CE. Pompeii. Naples, National Museum.
Augustus of Primaporta,265 Statue of the first Emperor, Augustus, named after the town of Primaporta where it was found. Born Gaius Octavius, Augustus changed his name upon becoming Emperor. Great nephew of Julius Caesar, Octavian defeated Anthony and Cleopatra, taking control of the Empire and ending the civil wars which followed the assassination of Julius Caesar.
Augustus of Primaporta The Emperor stands with his arm extended as if addressing his troops, carrying his staff of office in his left hand. His breastplate depicts the return of the Roman standard from a successful military campaign. The head was a mass produced stereotype, common throughout the Empire, so Augustus would be easily recognized by the populace
Ara Pacis Augustae.267 The Ara Pacis, “Altar of Peace,” was erected by Augustus between 13 and 9 BCE to commemorate his triumphal return to Rome following the end of civil war and the establishment of firm Roman rule in Spain and France.
Ara Pacis Augustae Detail: The Procession of the Family
Ara Pacis Augustae Panels on the east and west ends depict carefully selected mythological subjects. There is a procession (like the Parthenon frieze) of the imperial family and important dignitaries paying homage to Augustus. The sculptors of the Ara Pacis depicted actual individuals. They represented spatial depth by carving closer elements in high relief and those farther back in lower relief.
Ara Pacis Augustae Detail: Tellus, the earth-mother goddess.