Presentation on theme: "Acroterion in architecture, decorative pedestal for an ornament or statue placed atop the pediment of a Greek temple; the term has also been extended."— Presentation transcript:
Acroterion in architecture, decorative pedestal for an ornament or statue placed atop the pediment of a Greek temple; the term has also been extended to refer to the statue or ornament that stands on the pedestal. Fibula A decorative pin, usually used to fasten garments. Granulation A decorative technique in which tiny metal balls (granules) are fused to a metal surface. Necropolis City of the dead, or burial area for a living city. Tumulus Burial mound that covers one or more subterranean multichambered tombs cut out of the local tufa (limestone).
Four important Etruscan settlements. Tarquinia (Tarquinii) Cerveteri (Caere) Vulci Veii
Models of Etruscan temples as described by Vitruvius ca. 6th century B.C.E. The column used on Etruscan temples looks similar to the Doric type of Greek column How was an Etruscan temple entered from the front only
The Etruscan temple differed from the Greek temple because it had three cellas
Etruscan temple Wooden columns and wooden roof Walls of sun-dried brick Columns and steps restricted to the front of the temple Etruscan columns were wood, unfluted, and had bases. Greek temple Stone columns and stone roof Walls of stone Columns and steps usually went around all four sides; front and rear indistinguishable Greek columns were stone, fluted, and without bases. Etruscans temples were built of wood and brick
Apulu (Apollo) from the Portonaccio Temple, Veii, Italy ca B.C.E. painted terracotta 71 in. high Stylistic characteristics of the Apula (Apollo) from Veii Huge force and swelling contours of the garment. Gesticulating arms and animated face. Fanlike calf muscles. Originally placed at the top of the Portonaccio sanctuary temple roof at Veii. The Apulu of Veii was originally located on a temple roof Most architectural sculpture was made to decorate the roof of the Etruscan temple
Apulu (Apollo) from the Portonaccio Temple, Veii, Italy ca B.C.E. painted terracotta 71 in. high Favorite materials of Etruscan sculptors was Terracotta, which was often painted, and later bronze.
Apulu (Apollo) from the Portonaccio Temple, Veii, Italy ca B.C.E. painted terracotta 71 in. high
Sarcophagus with reclining couple from Cerveteri, Italy ca. 520 B.C.E. painted terracotta 45 1/2 in. high Important Etruscan tombs were discovered at Caere (Cerveteri) Terracotta life-sized reclining figures are found on Etruscan Sarcophagi
Sarcophagus with reclining couple from Cerveteri, Italy ca. 520 B.C.E. painted terracotta 45 1/2 in. high
Tumulus from Cerveteri, Italy 7th to 2nd centuries B.C.E.
Tumuli in the Banditaccia necropolis from Cerveteri, Italy 7th to 2nd centuries B.C.E.
Plan of the Tomb of the Shields and Chairs Cerveteri, Italy 2 nd half of the 6 th century B.C.E.
Interior of the tomb of the reliefs Cerveteri, Italy 3rd century B.C.E.
Interior of the Tomb of the Leopards Tarquinia, Italy ca B.C.E. The wall painting in the Tomb of the Leopards portrays which of the following banqueters and musicians
Double-flute player, detail of a mural painting in the Tomb of the Leopards Tarquinia, Italy ca B.C.E.
Arcuated gateway An arch-shaped gateway. Chimera A monster with the head and body of a lion and the tail of a serpent. A goat head grows out of one side of the body. Cista An Etruscan cylindrical container made of sheet bronze with cast handles and feet, often with elaborately carved bodies, used for womens toilet articles. Voussoir A wedge-shaped block used in the construction of a true arch. The central voussoir is the keystone.
Chimera of Arezzo from the Arezzo, Italy 1st half of 4th century B.C.E. bronze 31 1/2 in. high Etruscans produced cast- bronze sculpture.
Chimera of Arezzo from the Arezzo, Italy 1st half of 4th century B.C.E. bronze 31 1/2 in. high Estruscans had a taste for ostentatious displays of wealth.
Capitoline Wolf from Rome, Italy ca B.C.E. bronze 31 1/2 in. high The Capitoline Wolf was made for the new Roman Republic after the expulsion of Tarquinius Superbus, but was not made by the Romans, who did not have a distinct identity at that time. It was made in an Etruscan workshop (and the suckling infants are a Renaissance addition). The animal is represented with as much intensity and vitality as the Etruscan sculptures of people.
The Ficoroni Cista. Bronze. Late 4th century B.C. Height approx. 75 cm. Rome, National Museum of Villa Julia. Medium and technique used for decorating The Ficoroni Cistt; It is engraved on a sheet of bronze formed into a cylinder, with cast handles and feet. Etruscan artisans particularly excelled at metalworking The Ficoroni Cista is decorated with mythical scenes of the Argonauts
Porta Marzia (Gate of Mars) Perugia, Italy 2nd century B.C.E. The Gate of Mars in Perugia includes an arch pilasters, voussoirs,
Sarcophagus with reclining couple from Cerveteri, Italy Sarcophagus of Lars Pulena Tarquinia is different from the reclining couple because the deceased is not with his wife, nor is he at a banquet as in the older sarcophagus. He is somber instead of smiling and confident, perhaps an indication of the less prosperous Etrurian age. Late Etruscan sarcophagi were made of stone. Figure 9-15 Sarcophagus of Lars Pulena, from Tarquinia, Italy, early second century BCE. Tufa, 6 6 long. Museo Archeologico Nazionale, Tarquinia.
The deceased is shown in the underworld and is being attacked by two death demons (charuns) with hammers. Considering the Etruscans furnished their tumuli with colorful home-like accessories, this a gloomy prediction of the afterlife. It was at this time the Etruscan villages were either being destroyed by the Romans or being forced to ally with them.
Aule Metele from Cortona, Italy Early 1 st century B.C.E. bronze 5 ft. 7 in. high Two features of the magnificent bronze figure of Aule Matele that show Roman influence; Aule Metele wears the short toga and high laced boots of a Roman magistrate. His close-cropped hairstyle and the signs of age in his face resemble portraits made in Rome at that time. The Etruscan figural style can best be described as possessing motion and vitality Aule Metele is the best example that illustrates the influence of Roman art on Etruscan sculpture. Portrait of Augustus as general from Primaporta, Italy ca. 20 B.C.E. marble 80 in. high