The Etruscans, Archaic Italy Etruscans existed in Northern Italy (Tuscany) since as early as the 8 th century BCE 7 th -6 th centuries BCE, Etruscans ruled as kings of Rome By the end of the 6 th century BCE, the last Etruscan king was conquered by the Romans Highly skilled bronze artists
Porta Augusta, Perugia, Italy, 3 rd -2 nd century BCE
Ancient Rome Vocabulary Patricians Plebians Engaged columns Verism Atrium Barrel Vault Groin Vault Forum Republic Empire Mosaic Villa Fresco Linear Perspective Atmospheric Perspective
Ancient Rome Rome begins as a small village on the Capitoline Hill, the largest of seven hills in Rome in the Region of Latium. Virgil’s Aeneid tells the mythological founding of Rome by Aeneas, a refugee from Troy and the son of Venus. Other mythology attributes the founding of Rome to Romulus, son of Mars, in 753 BCE. Rome begins as a Republic in 509 BCE after the expulsion of the last Etruscan king, Tarquinius Superbus. Roman Republic politics is led by a Constitutional government consisting of 2 consuls and a senate, elected from noble families. The Republic lasts until the rule of Augustus in about 31 BCE when it turns into an empire, to 400 CE. 211 BCE Roman general Marcellus attacks Syracuse in Greece.
Equestrian Statue of Marcus Aurelius, Roman, 176 CE
Four Tetrarchs, Late Roman, ca. 300 CE Tetrarchy: 2 Augustii (Sr.Emperor) and 2 Caesars (Jr. Emperor)=four emperors. One of each in the Western capital: Rome and in the Eastern capital: Byzantium Porphyry
Constantine the Great, 325-326, Rome First Christian Emperor of the Roman Empire, Jr. Emperor in the West Defeats Maxentius in 313 at Battle of the Milvian Bridge to be sole ruler in the West Defeats Licinius in 324 to become sole ruler of the Empire Moves capital to Byzantium-Constantinople