2PreviewEgyptian Dynasties- The Kingdoms of Upper and Lower Egypt united around 3100 BCE. For most of the next 3,000 years, this land was ruled by powerful kings called pharaohs.Calling Rank- Ancient Egyptians ranked members of society based on their status.Egyptian Religion- Ancient Egyptians were polytheists who believed in many gods. They also believed that the dead lived on in the afterlife.
3Reach Into Your Background Predict what effect power and social class had on the lives of ancient Egyptians? (5 minutes)
4Partner ActivityWork with a neighbor and compare your answer with theirs. What things are the same and what things are different? (3 minutes)
5Key Ideas- Egyptian Dynasties Historians divide ancient Egypt into three periods: the Old Kingdom, the Middle Kingdom, and the New Kingdom.During these time periods, pharaohs ruled the empire. They passed their power down from one generation to another through ruling dynasties.Pharaohs waged wars to expand their empires. They built elaborate temples and tombs that still stand throughout Egypt today.
6Egyptian Society Egypt’s first civilizations were small villages. These villages were scattered along the Nile River.During those early days, Egypt was not united.
7Egyptian Society Over time, the people of Egypt formed two kingdoms. Egypt was divided into Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt. Around 3100 BCE, the two kingdoms became one.
8Pharaohs Unify EgyptIt is believed that the king of Upper Egypt led his forces into Lower Egypt.This king was Menes. He seized control of Lower Egypt.Menes succeeded in bringing together all the people living along the Nile into one nation.
9Pharaohs Unify Egypt Menes became Egypt’s first pharaoh, or ruler. Egyptians believed that Menes, and the pharaohs who followed him, were not just kings. They were gods on Earth.
10Key TermMenes- Menes was the first king, or pharaoh, of Egypt. He is credited with unifying Lower and Upper Egypt under one rule.
12Pharaohs Unify EgyptPharaohs in ancient Egypt held an incredible amount of power and influence over their subjects.Their subjects considered them living embodiments of the god Horus.
13Key TermHorus- The God of the sky and of the pharaohs.
14Pharaohs Unify EgyptThe pharaoh’s power influenced every level of the Egyptian social structure.Construction and adornment of their tombs and temples became large public-works projects that required countless hours of labor and enormous quantities of resources.
15Egypt’s KingdomsHistorians today divide up Egypt’s ancient times to keep track of the changes.They use Egypt’s many dynasties as a simple way to divide up its long history.
16Key TermDynasty- A series of rulers in a particular kingdom or empire, and each ruler in the series is said to be a member of the same family.
17Egypt’s KingdomsHistorians group Egypt's history into three main time periods:The Old KingdomThe Middle KingdomThe New Kingdom
18Egypt’s KingdomsThe time before the Old Kingdom is known as the Early Dynastic Period.During this time, Egypt’s culture was beginning to form.The Egyptians had not yet built large cities.
19Egypt’s Kingdoms Between each major era were Intermediate Periods. These periods were times of change and conflict.No one central power ruled over all of Egypt.
20King Khufu – Pyramid Builder The pharaohs ruled Egypt for 3,000 years.Egypt’s most recognizable ancient site was built by one of its earlier pharaohs.The Great Pyramid at Giza was built by King Khufu.
21King Khufu – Pyramid Builder To build the pyramids ancient Egyptians had to use their advanced knowledge of geometry and architecture.The ancient Egyptians combined this knowledge with the use of huge amounts of physical labor.
22Key TermPyramid- A large stone structure that is built with a square base and has triangular-shaped sides that meet in a point at the top.
24Key Ideas- Calling Rank The ancient Egyptians believed that pharaohs were gods.A small group of government officials and priests served the pharaohs.The majority of Egyptians were farmers.Enslaved people had the lowest status in ancient Egypt.
27Social Structure of Ancient Egypt The pharaoh was the most powerful person in all of Egypt.However, every person had a role to play in Egyptian society.
28Social Structure of Ancient Egypt Ancient Egyptians were born into a social group.They usually continued in the same jobs as their parents.Scientists study the sculptures and paintings that were left behind in ancient cities.
29Why It MattersEvery class in the social structure contributed to Egyptian society.All classes supported the power of the pharaoh.The pharaoh made decisions about war, building projects, and who would rule next.
30Slavery in Ancient Egypt Reading Handout- Slavery in Ancient Egypt
31Key Ideas- Egyptian Religion To prepare for the afterlife, pharaohs order their subjects to build elaborate tombs. They filled the tombs with fine objects.After death, a pharaoh’s body was carefully mummified, or preserved, by priests. Then it was placed in its tomb.
32Gods and Goddesses of Ancient Egypt The ancient Egyptians held very strong religious beliefs.For most of their history, they practiced polytheism, or the worship of many gods.
33Gods and Goddesses of Ancient Egypt Anubis: God of the dead. Guided dead souls to the underworldIsis: Goddess of fertility and motherhood. Wife of Osiris and mother of HorusOsiris: God of the underworld and resurrectionHorus: God of the sky and of the pharaohsSeth: God of the desert and violence. Brother of Osiris
34Life After DeathAncient Egyptians believed in the presence of their souls.Their souls were the part of them that would continue to live in the underworld after their bodies had died.
35Life After DeathMost Egyptians wanted to be buried near their relatives and friends.They also were buried with prized belongings, like jewelry.They wanted to have these items with them in the afterlife.
36Life After DeathStatues, jewelry, and paintings all went into the tomb.Paintings and carvings on the wall celebrated a pharaoh’s life.Once a pharaoh died, skilled priests began to preserve the body.
37Life After DeathEgyptians from all social classes were mummified to prepare for the afterlife.However, the process was very expensive. The richest and most powerful could afford the most elaborate burials, while poorer, less powerful Egyptians had simple burials.
39Why It MattersThe ancient Egyptians’ focus on the afterlife is one reason that their culture has been so well preserved.Builders made secure buildings to house the pharaohs’ bodies after death. Artists and scribes created works to record the past of the pharaohs.Tomb art, including hieroglyphics, gives historians clues about what happened in ancient Egypt.
40Key TermHieroglyphics- Symbols or pictures that stand for objects, ideas, or sounds.
41Independent ActivityWhat has been the “muddiest” point so far in this lesson? That is, what topic remains the least clear to you? (4 minutes)
42Partner ActivityWork with a neighbor and compare your muddiest point with theirs. Compare what things are the same and what things are different? (3 minutes)