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Hellenic and Hellenistic Greece

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Presentation on theme: "Hellenic and Hellenistic Greece"— Presentation transcript:

1 Hellenic and Hellenistic Greece

2 Greece and Rome Ancient West
Mediterranean-centered Cities and trade Self-government Rise of empire Decline and discontinuity Shared culture (Greco-Roman) Chart: RGH p. 136 2

3 3

4 Classical Greece and the Mediterranean basin, 800-500 BCE

5 Acropolis: the highest, most easily defensible part of the polis.

6 Athens 6

7 Greek Civilization Considered one of the foundational sources of “Western civilization” The source of philosophy, democracy, architectural ideals …yet its transmission to Europe was not direct and unbroken… 7

8 Chronology of Ancient Greece
BCE Minoan society BCE Mycenaean society BCE Era of the polis BCE Persian Wars BCE Peloponnesian War BCE Reign of Philip of Macedon BCE Reign of Alexander of Macedon 8

9 Greece in the Hellenic Period 7th-3rd BCE- “Before Empire”
The Polis (city-state) “one of the wonders of human social organization” “like a hothouse flower, could only thrive under the right conditions” Autonomy (Independence) and Autarky (self-sufficiency) Amateurism vs. Professionalism Political evolution—Athens (democracy) and Sparta (monarchy) Monarchy Aristocracy Oligarchy Tyranny Democracy 9

10 Classical Greece and the Mediterranean basin, 800-500 BCE

11 Two approaches to population & social problems:
Sparta “closed society” Turned Sparta into a police state Men and women lived a “Spartan lifestyle” Athens “open society” birth of “democracy” emphasis on individualism and wealth from trade 11

12 The “Spartan” Lifestyle
Boys were taken from families to begin military training at 7 They didn’t establish their own households until they were 30 They remained in the military until they were 60 Enslaved “helots” did farming for polis Spartan women were encouraged to be physically fit in order to bear strong sons 12

13 Athenian “democracy” Debates on issues were public
Decisions were made directly by casting lots All “citizens” could speak out at assemblies and vote 13

14 Democracy How did Athenians define it
Democracy How did Athenians define it? “We alone regard a man who takes no interest in public affairs, not as harmless, as worthless” (Pericles) Rights vs. Duty Citizenship—who? Participation – how? Military service-the Phalanx Wealthy subject to special taxes All citizens attended the 40 annual sessions of the Assembly Offices chosen by lot, with no pay Must be ready to serve in any capacity 14

15 …but “citizens” did NOT include
Landless males Slaves [1/3 of population] Women Which meant only 10-15% of the population voted Compared to modern democracies, Athenian democracy was more exclusive and directly participatory 15

16 Legacies of Greece: Olympic Games
Competition and sports were important parts of Greek life Games figured in local and Pan-Hellenic festivals [including at Nemean, Isthmian, Pythian, Olympia Olympic games established 776 BCE [?] 16

17 17

18 The Olympics What Greek values did the Olympics reflect?
Are the same values still important for us today? Individualism (Humanism) All-around excellence (Arête) Devotion to your polis (Nationalism, Patriotism) Amateur ideal Patriarchy Militaristic values Intellectuality and Art Greek, made in Athens about BC Found at Teucheira, Cyrenaica (modern Libya) A prize for a victor at the Athenian games 18

19 What happens to Hellenic Greece?
Persian Wars BCE 19

20 Persia: “The Enemy”

21 Persian Invasion of Greece
Two attacks: 490 BCE: Battle of Marathon 480 BCE: Xerxes attacks again Statue of Pheidippides 21

22 The Persian Wars BCE 22

23 See Pericles’ Funeral Oration (RGH pp. 136-140)
But Greece wins! See Pericles’ Funeral Oration (RGH pp ) 23

24 Greek naval technology
Greek Trireme 170 rowers in tiers 24

25 “Progress Broke the Polis” Athenian Imperialism
Empire Strikes Back! “Progress Broke the Polis” Athenian Imperialism 25

26 Greek Colonies and Greek Empire

27 Delian League and Peloponnesian War
Formed as defensive alliance against Persia As the threat of war waned, became tribute system to Athens / “Athenian Empire” Height of Athen’s “golden age” Resentment against Athens led to Peloponnesian War 27

28 Peloponnesian Wars (431-404BCE)
Athens vs. Sparta Athens Loses, but so does all of Hellenic Greece Why? 'A War Like No Other': Where Hubris Came From New York Times Article, 10/23/05 28

29 Legacies of Greece Architecture
Key themes: balance, harmony, proportion Lincoln Memorial White House 29

30 Classical (Golden Age of Greece) 5th BCE
Pericles Ideals and Values Humanism and Secularism Reason Individualism “Athens among her contemporaries is superior to the report of her” (Pericles) 30

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32 The Death of Socrates by Jacques-Louis David, 1787

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34 34

35 Legacies of Greece: Olympic Games
Competition and sports were important parts of Greek life Games figured in local and Pan-Hellenic festivals [including at Nemean, Isthmian, Pythian, Olympia Olympic games established 776 BCE [?] 35

36 Greek religion Zeus Athena Aphrodite & Pan Apollo 36

37 Diadoumenos of Polykleitos, c. 430 B.C.. National Museum Athens.
Lacoon and His Sons, 200 bce. Laocoon Group, by Athanadoros, Hagesandros, and Polydoros of Rhodes, early 1st cent. BC Hellenistic: real man Hellenic: ideal man 37

38 In the meanwhile, to the north…
Philip II of Macedonia Alexander of Macedonia 38

39 Mosaic of Battle of Issus
The heroic personality of Alexander the Great is apparent in a painting by Philoxenos of Eretria, from about 300 B.C.E., which survives only in this Roman mosaic form. It is believed to be of Alexander's victory over the Persian king, Darius III, in 33 B.C.E. at the Battle of Issus. (National Museum, Naples/Art Resource, NY) 39

40 Alexander’s Empire 40

41 Hellenistic Greece Cosmopolis
Hellenistic Philosophies—individualistic, mystic Philosophy – Aristotle Science – Archimedes, Euclid, Eratosthenes, Hippocrates Hellenistic Exchange-Greek, ideas, food, trade-blending of Greek and Asian cultures 41

42 Alexander the Great 42

43 Alexander the Great’s Empire

44 The Hellenization of Asia

45 The Economy of the Hellenistic World

46 Hellenistic Philosophers
Cynics  Diogenes ignore social conventions & avoid luxuries. citizens of the world. live a humble, simple life. Epicurians  Epicurus avoid pain & seek pleasure. all excess leads to pain! politics should be avoided. 46

47 Hellenistic Philosophers
Stoics  Zeno nature is the expansion of divine will. concept of natural law. get involved in politics, not for personal gain, but to perform virtuous acts for the good of all. true happiness is found in great achievements. 47

48 Hellenism: The Arts & Sciences
Scientists / Mathematicians: Aristarchus  heliocentric theory. Euclid  geometry Archimedes  pulley Hellenistic Art: More realistic; less ideal than Hellenic art. Showed individual emotions, wrinkles, and age! 48

49 49

50 Eratosthenes’ Map of the World

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