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Classical Greece and Rome. Greece and Rome 1. Ancient Greece 1. Ancient Greece 2. Alexander the Great/Hellenistic Age 2. Alexander the Great/Hellenistic.

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Presentation on theme: "Classical Greece and Rome. Greece and Rome 1. Ancient Greece 1. Ancient Greece 2. Alexander the Great/Hellenistic Age 2. Alexander the Great/Hellenistic."— Presentation transcript:

1 Classical Greece and Rome

2 Greece and Rome 1. Ancient Greece 1. Ancient Greece 2. Alexander the Great/Hellenistic Age 2. Alexander the Great/Hellenistic Age 3. Roman Empire 3. Roman Empire 4. Dark/Middle Ages 4. Dark/Middle Ages

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4 Geography of Greece Mountainous peninsula, rugged terrain Mountainous peninsula, rugged terrain Numerous islands Numerous islands Sea serves as a mode of travel and trade Sea serves as a mode of travel and trade Geog. Isolation of the individual poleis Geog. Isolation of the individual poleis Mediterranean Climate Mediterranean Climate Dry summer, wet winter Dry summer, wet winter Difficult for most types agriculture Difficult for most types agriculture Great for olives, grapes, barley Great for olives, grapes, barley

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6 Early Greek Cultures Minoan: BCE Minoan: BCE Located on Crete Located on Crete King Minos King Minos Palace Complex at Knossos Palace Complex at Knossos Reveals a rich culture; elaborate decoration Reveals a rich culture; elaborate decoration Sudden destruction Sudden destruction Natural disaster OR invasion Natural disaster OR invasion

7 Palace Complex at Knossos: Minoa _knossos_bull_fresco.JPG ossos01.jpg

8 Early Greek Cultures Mycenaean: BCE Mycenaean: BCE Settled by Indo-Europeans (1900 BCE) Settled by Indo-Europeans (1900 BCE) Grew into powerful monarchies Grew into powerful monarchies Warriors and traders Warriors and traders Royal family lived in fortified palaces Royal family lived in fortified palaces Bee-hive tombs to bury dead (known as Tholos) Bee-hive tombs to bury dead (known as Tholos) Setting of Homer’s epic poems Setting of Homer’s epic poems Trojan War (around 1250 BCE) Trojan War (around 1250 BCE) Debate over true existance of Troy Debate over true existance of Troy Heinrich Schleimann Heinrich Schleimann Decline due to internal conflict, natural disaster and invasion Decline due to internal conflict, natural disaster and invasion

9 Mycenaean Culture Mycenaean Acropolis e/mycenae_aerial_photo.jpg ges/intelli/mycenaean- rhyton_bullshead_1200bc_tombo naok_new3.jpg Funeral Mask n-commons/thumb/8/81/250px- MaskAgamemnon.png mages/h2/h2_ jpg

10 Dark Age After fall of Mycenaea, Greece entered a Dark Age After fall of Mycenaea, Greece entered a Dark Age Period of decline Period of decline Depopulation from mainland Depopulation from mainland Move to Ionia, Lesbos, and other islands Move to Ionia, Lesbos, and other islands Poverty, lack of development Poverty, lack of development Most important development: adoption of the Phoenician alphabetic system Most important development: adoption of the Phoenician alphabetic system Simplified to only 24 letter Simplified to only 24 letter

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12 Greek City-States Independent, self-governing city-state known as a polis Independent, self-governing city-state known as a polis Fortified acropolis: place of refuge in attack; site of government buildings and temples Fortified acropolis: place of refuge in attack; site of government buildings and temples Surrounded by agora: open market place Surrounded by agora: open market place Hundreds of poleis, vary in size and pop. Hundreds of poleis, vary in size and pop. Sparta: largest territory Sparta: largest territory Athens: largest Population Athens: largest Population

13 Hoplite Warfare Competition among poleis led to war Competition among poleis led to war Hoplite warfare emerged as a form of defense Hoplite warfare emerged as a form of defense Marched in phalanx Marched in phalanx Each man protecting the next Each man protecting the next Quick battles, well-suited for farmers Quick battles, well-suited for farmers Did not require expensive gear or great deal of training Did not require expensive gear or great deal of training

14 lite4thcentury.jpg Phalanx Hoplite

15 Greek Colonies After the Dark Age, Greece experienced a growth in population After the Dark Age, Greece experienced a growth in population Due to advances in agricultural techniques Due to advances in agricultural techniques Over population led to colonization Over population led to colonization Sent out colonies in: North Africa, Mediterranean, and Black Sea regions Sent out colonies in: North Africa, Mediterranean, and Black Sea regions Increased trade with mainland Increased trade with mainland Olive oil, wine, pottery in exchange for timber, grain, and metals Olive oil, wine, pottery in exchange for timber, grain, and metals

16 Spread of Greek Colonies

17 Greek Government Various styles of Government Various styles of Government Depending on the polis Depending on the polis Tyranny: common up until 500’s Tyranny: common up until 500’s Strongmen who seized power, often w/ support of peasantry Strongmen who seized power, often w/ support of peasantry Took power from aristocrats Took power from aristocrats Oligarchy: “rule by the few” very common Oligarchy: “rule by the few” very common Council of wealthy aristocrats or elders Council of wealthy aristocrats or elders Democracy: “rule by the people” Democracy: “rule by the people” Athens Athens Limited suffrage; only free men allowed to vote and participate Limited suffrage; only free men allowed to vote and participate

18 Sparta Chose not to send out colonies Chose not to send out colonies Conquered neighboring city-states Conquered neighboring city-states Forced conquered people to become Helots Forced conquered people to become Helots Produced food to feed the Spartans Produced food to feed the Spartans Often rebelled; put down by Spartan military Often rebelled; put down by Spartan military Militaristic, rigid society Militaristic, rigid society Children began education at 7 Children began education at 7 Taught to be disciplined and obedient Taught to be disciplined and obedient Boys and girls train to be fit and disciplined Boys and girls train to be fit and disciplined Boys live in barracks until age of 30, in army until 60 Boys live in barracks until age of 30, in army until 60 Simple meals taken in mess hall Simple meals taken in mess hall

19 /lect10/emapSparta jpg /lect10/emapSparta jpg

20 Sparta Society in Sparta: Society in Sparta: Women lived in separate homes until husband reached 30 Women lived in separate homes until husband reached 30 Young boys mentored by older Spartan soldiers Young boys mentored by older Spartan soldiers Often involved a sexual relationship Often involved a sexual relationship Minimalist lifestyle, no luxury items or wealth Minimalist lifestyle, no luxury items or wealth Luxury items were thought to make a person weak Luxury items were thought to make a person weak Government in Sparta: Oligarchy Government in Sparta: Oligarchy Dual Kingship, Council of Ephors, Council of Elders Dual Kingship, Council of Ephors, Council of Elders Only men participated in govt Only men participated in govt Women, however, had relatively high status compared to Athens Women, however, had relatively high status compared to Athens Government encouraged isolation of Sparta Government encouraged isolation of Sparta Often did not allow people to travel to or from Sparta Often did not allow people to travel to or from Sparta Discouraged the study of anything other than the art of war Discouraged the study of anything other than the art of war

21 Athens Focused on learning, art, philosophy Focused on learning, art, philosophy Became center of Greek culture Became center of Greek culture Highest population of the poleis Highest population of the poleis Developed democracy after bad experiences with Tyranny and Oligarchy Developed democracy after bad experiences with Tyranny and Oligarchy Direct democracy: all eligible citizens (free men) can vote and serve in office Direct democracy: all eligible citizens (free men) can vote and serve in office Meetings held every 10 days Meetings held every 10 days Ostracism as method of eliminating harmful persons (ie. Ambitious politicians) Ostracism as method of eliminating harmful persons (ie. Ambitious politicians) Person with most votes exiled for 10 years Person with most votes exiled for 10 years Reached height of power after Persian War Reached height of power after Persian War

22 Greek Religion Polytheistic Polytheistic 3 generations of gods 3 generations of gods Best known was the 3 rd Generation Best known was the 3 rd Generation Olympian Gods: Zeus as king of the gods Olympian Gods: Zeus as king of the gods Complex rituals & festivals conducted to please the gods & earn favors Complex rituals & festivals conducted to please the gods & earn favors Gods believed to communicate through oracles Gods believed to communicate through oracles Most important was Delphic Delphi Most important was Delphic Delphi No major decisions made without consulting the oracle No major decisions made without consulting the oracle

23 SRXV9z8X5XNU_/olympian.jpg

24 Greek Drama Drama very popular in Greece Drama very popular in Greece Huge influence on western world Huge influence on western world Themes of Greek Drama Themes of Greek Drama Humanism, good v evil, persistence, pride Humanism, good v evil, persistence, pride Tragedies usually written in trilogies Tragedies usually written in trilogies Comedy became popular in later years Comedy became popular in later years Popular dramatists Popular dramatists Aeschylus: Orestia Aeschylus: Orestia Sophocles: Oedipus Rex, Antigone Sophocles: Oedipus Rex, Antigone Euripides Euripides

25 Greek Philosophy Philosophy: “Love of Wisdom” Philosophy: “Love of Wisdom” Greek philosophers contemplated the universe and emphasized rational thought Greek philosophers contemplated the universe and emphasized rational thought 3 major philosophers 3 major philosophers Socrates Socrates Sculptor and teacher (Socratic Method of question/answer) Sculptor and teacher (Socratic Method of question/answer) Accused of corrupting the youth of Athens Accused of corrupting the youth of Athens Found guilty, sentenced to death or exile Found guilty, sentenced to death or exile Chose death (drank hemlock poison) Chose death (drank hemlock poison) Plato Plato Student of Plato Student of Plato Prolific writer, established the Academy to teach others his ideas Prolific writer, established the Academy to teach others his ideas

26 Socrates Plato

27 Greek Philosophy Aristotle: Aristotle: Student of Plato Student of Plato Interested in analyzing and classifying the world Interested in analyzing and classifying the world Studied many subjects Studied many subjects Ethics, logic, politics, poetry, physics, astronomy, geology Ethics, logic, politics, poetry, physics, astronomy, geology His ideas would influence western thought for hundreds of years His ideas would influence western thought for hundreds of years Researched government, determined there are 3 desirable forms of government Researched government, determined there are 3 desirable forms of government Monarchy, aristocracy, and constitutional government Monarchy, aristocracy, and constitutional government

28 Aristotle

29 Writing of History Herodotus: seen as Father of history in western world Herodotus: seen as Father of history in western world Wrote about the Persian War Wrote about the Persian War Much discussion of divine forces (ie, the gods) Much discussion of divine forces (ie, the gods) Thucydides: Thucydides: Athenian general in the Peloponnesian War Athenian general in the Peloponnesian War Wrote about the war Wrote about the war Focused mainly on human experiences, not gods Focused mainly on human experiences, not gods More methodical in his approach More methodical in his approach Look at cause/effect Look at cause/effect

30 Art in Greece Pottery used as a form of Art Pottery used as a form of Art Emphasis on balance and harmony Emphasis on balance and harmony Humans often the subject of art (humanism) Humans often the subject of art (humanism) Body seen as a thing of beauty Body seen as a thing of beauty Often idealized Often idealized Sculptures emphasize toned bodies and serene faces Sculptures emphasize toned bodies and serene faces beauty beauty Architecture Architecture Temples to honor gods Temples to honor gods Use of Columns Use of Columns Parthenon: most famous example of Classical Greek Architecture Parthenon: most famous example of Classical Greek Architecture

31 henon/Parthenon1.jpg

32 zone/images/art/gkdiscus.gif media/10/ D1D77.jpg

33 Persian War

34 Persian Empire Greek expansion led to conflict with Persian Empire Greek expansion led to conflict with Persian Empire Persian Empire Persian Empire Cyrus The Great: unified the Persian Kingdoms Cyrus The Great: unified the Persian Kingdoms Captured Anatolia and Mesopotamia Captured Anatolia and Mesopotamia Built power base by respecting local traditions and religion Built power base by respecting local traditions and religion

35 Persian Empire Cambyses (Cyrus’ son) expanded empire Cambyses (Cyrus’ son) expanded empire Defeated Egypt, moved into Nubia & Libya Defeated Egypt, moved into Nubia & Libya Darius expanded Persian rule into the Indus River valley and into parts of Europe Darius expanded Persian rule into the Indus River valley and into parts of Europe Social Stratification in Persia: Social Stratification in Persia: 3 classes: 3 classes: Warriors and aristocracy Warriors and aristocracy Priests Priests peasants peasants

36 Persian Empire at its height

37 Persian Empire Government in Persia Government in Persia Divided empire into provinces Divided empire into provinces Satrap governed each province as a representative of the king Satrap governed each province as a representative of the king Position of Satrap was hereditary Position of Satrap was hereditary Provinces paid tribute to the central govt. Provinces paid tribute to the central govt. Kings were aloof rulers, seen as gods Kings were aloof rulers, seen as gods Persepolis: city where king and royal family conducted ceremonies Persepolis: city where king and royal family conducted ceremonies

38 Persian Empire Religion in Persia: Religion in Persia: Zoroastrianism Zoroastrianism World created by Ahuramazda World created by Ahuramazda One supreme deity One supreme deity Battle of good v. evil Battle of good v. evil Belief in afterlife where deeds would be rewarded or punished Belief in afterlife where deeds would be rewarded or punished May have influenced the beliefs of Judaism and Christianity May have influenced the beliefs of Judaism and Christianity

39 Persian War 499 BCE: Ionian Greeks revolted against Persian rule (unsuccessful) 499 BCE: Ionian Greeks revolted against Persian rule (unsuccessful) Aided by Athens Aided by Athens Darius vowed revenge for Greek interference Darius vowed revenge for Greek interference 490: Battle of Marathon 490: Battle of Marathon Athenian victory Athenian victory 486: Darius died, Xerxes in control 486: Darius died, Xerxes in control Plans attack Plans attack Athenians buildup a navy Athenians buildup a navy

40 Persian War 480: Xerxes leads invasion of Greece 480: Xerxes leads invasion of Greece Delayed at Thermopylae Delayed at Thermopylae Eventually advance Eventually advance Athenians abandon city, which was nearly destroyed by the Persians Athenians abandon city, which was nearly destroyed by the Persians 479: Persians defeated by Greeks at Plataea 479: Persians defeated by Greeks at Plataea

41 Athenian Empire Delian League: Greek alliance to defend against Persian Empire Delian League: Greek alliance to defend against Persian Empire Led by Athens Led by Athens Athens used league to build their own power Athens used league to build their own power League treasury moved to Athens, money used to fund Athenian growth League treasury moved to Athens, money used to fund Athenian growth Pericles: major figure in Athens Pericles: major figure in Athens Helped promote democracy; very influential Helped promote democracy; very influential

42 Conflict with Sparta Resentment grew between Athens and Sparta Resentment grew between Athens and Sparta Resulted in war Resulted in war Peloponnesian War: BCE Peloponnesian War: BCE Athenians hid within the walls of Athens Athenians hid within the walls of Athens Plague broke out in Athens Plague broke out in Athens 1/3 of population died, including Pericles 1/3 of population died, including Pericles Periodic truces followed by renewed conflict Periodic truces followed by renewed conflict Athens finally defeated in 404 Athens finally defeated in 404 Peloponnesian War greatly weakened Greece Peloponnesian War greatly weakened Greece Internal fighting and conflict made them vulnerable Internal fighting and conflict made them vulnerable Eventually cost them their autonomy Eventually cost them their autonomy

43 Decline of Greeks, Triumph of Macedonia

44 Decline of Greeks Internal conflict among city-states weakened Greece Internal conflict among city-states weakened Greece Persians remained a threat Persians remained a threat Regained territory in W. Asia Regained territory in W. Asia To north, Philip II began to transform Macedonia To north, Philip II began to transform Macedonia Restructured military to include cavalry Restructured military to include cavalry Developed siege technology- catapult Developed siege technology- catapult Began to assert control over the Greeks Began to assert control over the Greeks

45 Triumph of Macedonia Philip built organized a coalition to defend against Persia Philip built organized a coalition to defend against Persia Est. himself as leader Est. himself as leader Assassinated in 336 BCE Assassinated in 336 BCE His son, Alexander, took over where he left off His son, Alexander, took over where he left off

46 Empire of Alexander the Great

47 Alexander the Great Alexander ( BCE) Alexander ( BCE) Used military to defeat Persians Used military to defeat Persians Expanded influence into North Africa, Egypt and nearly all of Greece Expanded influence into North Africa, Egypt and nearly all of Greece Empire was short-lived Empire was short-lived Power struggle after his death in 323 BCE Power struggle after his death in 323 BCE Empire split into 3 kingdoms Empire split into 3 kingdoms Seleucid, Ptolemaic, and Antigonid Seleucid, Ptolemaic, and Antigonid

48 Hellenistic Period Alexander’s vast empire helped to spread Greek culture to other parts of the world Alexander’s vast empire helped to spread Greek culture to other parts of the world Even after his death, the Hellenistic Kingdoms continued to spread Greek culture Even after his death, the Hellenistic Kingdoms continued to spread Greek culture Govt. in Hellenistic Kingdoms: autocratic Govt. in Hellenistic Kingdoms: autocratic Trade and learning flourished Trade and learning flourished Cities became cultural centers Cities became cultural centers Alexandria in Egypt very important city Alexandria in Egypt very important city

49 Rome

50 Geography of Rome Italy Italy Hilly terrain Hilly terrain Apennine Mts along eastern coast Apennine Mts along eastern coast Alps serve as barrier from north Alps serve as barrier from north Navigable rivers, access to Med. Sea Navigable rivers, access to Med. Sea River valleys and volcanic soil good for ag. River valleys and volcanic soil good for ag. Climate much like that in Greece Climate much like that in Greece Abundance of Natural resources Abundance of Natural resources

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52 Rome Legend of Rome’s Creation Legend of Rome’s Creation Founded by Romulus in 753 BCE Founded by Romulus in 753 BCE Evidence points to settlement much earlier Evidence points to settlement much earlier Agriculture essential part of economy Agriculture essential part of economy Land is a measure of wealth Land is a measure of wealth Power centered in hands of those who owned the most land Power centered in hands of those who owned the most land Initially ruled by series of kings Initially ruled by series of kings King overthrown by land-owning aristocracy King overthrown by land-owning aristocracy Republic created in 507 BCE Republic created in 507 BCE

53 Roman Republic BCE BCE Government Structure during the Republic Government Structure during the Republic Power in hands of the elite Power in hands of the elite Election of officials by assembly of citizens Election of officials by assembly of citizens Wealthy citizens’ votes counted for more than the poor citizens Wealthy citizens’ votes counted for more than the poor citizens Two main bodies Two main bodies Senate: composed of landowning aristocracy Senate: composed of landowning aristocracy Consuls: 2 executive bodies Consuls: 2 executive bodies Members usually relatives of the Senators Members usually relatives of the Senators

54 Expansion under the Roman Republic Rome began to exert influence over the rest of the Italian peninsula Rome began to exert influence over the rest of the Italian peninsula Use of military to acquire new lands Use of military to acquire new lands Punic Wars: 3 wars fought with Carthage Punic Wars: 3 wars fought with Carthage BCE BCE Defeated Carthage in N. Africa Defeated Carthage in N. Africa Continued on to seize the western Med., Egypt, and Greece Continued on to seize the western Med., Egypt, and Greece

55 Decline of the Roman Republic Inequality within the Republic led to social unrest and revolts Inequality within the Republic led to social unrest and revolts Some changes made to bridge gap between the upper and lower-classes Some changes made to bridge gap between the upper and lower-classes Twelve Tablets 450 BCE: publication of laws to avoid arbitrary decisions by govt. officials Twelve Tablets 450 BCE: publication of laws to avoid arbitrary decisions by govt. officials Tribunes: offices held by lower class citizens Tribunes: offices held by lower class citizens Could veto legislation Could veto legislation Eventually, the tribunes would be absorbed into the aristocracy and lost touch with their original purpose Eventually, the tribunes would be absorbed into the aristocracy and lost touch with their original purpose Republic saw further trouble when a series of ambitious generals used the military to consolidate their own power Republic saw further trouble when a series of ambitious generals used the military to consolidate their own power Sulla, Pompey, Caesar, Mark Antony, and Octavian Sulla, Pompey, Caesar, Mark Antony, and Octavian

56 Decline of the Roman Republic, Rise of the Roman Empire Civil Wars broke out as rival generals fought for control Civil Wars broke out as rival generals fought for control By the time Octavian (Augustus) came to power in 27 BCE, the Republic was nearly over By the time Octavian (Augustus) came to power in 27 BCE, the Republic was nearly over Augustus established basic structure of the Roman Empire Augustus established basic structure of the Roman Empire For next 200 years, the Roman Empire expanded and flourished For next 200 years, the Roman Empire expanded and flourished Acquired new territory in Europe and the Middle East Acquired new territory in Europe and the Middle East

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58 Government under the Roman Empire Roman Senate still met, but all major decisions made by emperor Roman Senate still met, but all major decisions made by emperor Local autonomy throughout vast empire Local autonomy throughout vast empire Governors sent to maintain control Governors sent to maintain control Rarely exerted absolute control, except in times of revolt Rarely exerted absolute control, except in times of revolt Use of military to maintain control Use of military to maintain control Empire was tolerant of local traditions Empire was tolerant of local traditions As long as they did not interfere with well- being of the empire As long as they did not interfere with well- being of the empire

59 Government under the Roman Empire Pax Romana Pax Romana Roman citizenship extended to conquered peoples Roman citizenship extended to conquered peoples Clearly defined laws throughout the empire Clearly defined laws throughout the empire Promote order and unity Promote order and unity Government regulated grain production Government regulated grain production Used empire to feed the masses in Rome and other large cities Used empire to feed the masses in Rome and other large cities Construction projects throughout empire Construction projects throughout empire Public baths, theaters, roads, etc. Public baths, theaters, roads, etc.

60 Technology of Roman Empire Romans excelled in engineering Romans excelled in engineering Aqueducts to transport water Aqueducts to transport water Domed buildings Domed buildings Massive public buildings Massive public buildings Little effort to develop new technology or ideas in science Little effort to develop new technology or ideas in science webunits/greecerome/acqu.jpg

61 Art and Entertainment Like the Greeks, the Romans continued on the idea of humanism Like the Greeks, the Romans continued on the idea of humanism Reflected in art Reflected in art Busts of rulers Busts of rulers Scenes of Roman conquest Scenes of Roman conquest Elaborate public facilities available for use by city-dwellers Elaborate public facilities available for use by city-dwellers Gladiator Games and Chariot races were popular forms of entertainment Gladiator Games and Chariot races were popular forms of entertainment

62 m/images_library/p_big_4 820.jpg auntedworld/images/Coliseum-Rome.jpg

63 Religion Early Roman religion was much like that of Greece Early Roman religion was much like that of Greece Similar gods with different names Similar gods with different names Ie. King of Gods Ie. King of Gods Greece= Zeus, Rome=Jupiter Greece= Zeus, Rome=Jupiter 313: Roman Empire adopted Christianity 313: Roman Empire adopted Christianity Emperor Constantine Emperor Constantine Attempt to create sense of unity within a crumbling empire Attempt to create sense of unity within a crumbling empire

64 Society and Culture Institutionalized system of social inequality in Rome Institutionalized system of social inequality in Rome Slavery common Slavery common Used for housework, working in mines, and agriculture Used for housework, working in mines, and agriculture Over time, free farmers became tenant farmers who worked the land of wealthy aristocrats Over time, free farmers became tenant farmers who worked the land of wealthy aristocrats Power centered in hands of the wealthy Power centered in hands of the wealthy

65 Society and Culture Patriarchal society Patriarchal society Oldest male was head of family Oldest male was head of family Women under authority of male relatives Women under authority of male relatives Woman’s place was in the home, no political power Woman’s place was in the home, no political power However, some were able to exert influence over husbands However, some were able to exert influence over husbands In families who struggled economically, boys were sometimes preferred to girls In families who struggled economically, boys were sometimes preferred to girls

66 Economy Ag based economy Ag based economy Most people made living through farming Most people made living through farming Olives & grapes in Italy, grains and vegetables in other parts of the empire Olives & grapes in Italy, grains and vegetables in other parts of the empire Grain essential, but does not grow well in Italy Grain essential, but does not grow well in Italy Use of empire to feed the masses in Rome Use of empire to feed the masses in Rome Trade and Commerce essential to feed the empire Trade and Commerce essential to feed the empire As such, merchants enjoyed high social status As such, merchants enjoyed high social status Luxury items imported from east Luxury items imported from east Traded animal skins, metals, and exotic animal species for silk and spices from east Traded animal skins, metals, and exotic animal species for silk and spices from east However, merchants from west were at a disadvantage because their goods were not as valuable as those from India and China However, merchants from west were at a disadvantage because their goods were not as valuable as those from India and China

67 Decline of Roman Empire After 200 years of vigorous growth, Roman Empire began a slow decline After 200 years of vigorous growth, Roman Empire began a slow decline Economic deterioration as trade began to decline Economic deterioration as trade began to decline Emperors were unable to maintain control in far reaches of the empire Emperors were unable to maintain control in far reaches of the empire Local authorities began to reassert more power Local authorities began to reassert more power Germanic invasions from North led to the fall of the western half of the empire Germanic invasions from North led to the fall of the western half of the empire More information forthcoming on the fall of the Classical Civilizations!!! More information forthcoming on the fall of the Classical Civilizations!!!

68 Ticket Out the Door: How did geography hurt ancient Greece? How did geography hurt ancient Greece? How did geography help ancient Rome? How did geography help ancient Rome? What was the most important achievement of ancient Greece? What was the most important achievement of ancient Greece? What was the most important achievement of ancient Rome? What was the most important achievement of ancient Rome? What is the other name for the Eastern Roman Empire? What is the other name for the Eastern Roman Empire?


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