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Intro Iraq & the Persian Gulf War

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1 Intro Iraq & the Persian Gulf War
World Geography Victory Parade for Operation Desert Storm Military personnel carry a huge American flag through New York City during a ticker tape victory parade for Operation Desert Storm. Image: © Joseph Sohm; ChromoSohm Inc./CORBIS June 1991

2 Middle East Quick Quiz How much do you know about the middle east? 5 quiz questions 1) Who created most of the borders and countries of the Middle East? a. France and England b. Jordan and Syria c. Saudi Arabia d. The United Nations e. The United States

3 Middle East Quick Quiz How much do you know about the middle east? 5 quiz questions 2) What language is spoken in Iran? 3) When did it become illegal for women in Iran to go without wearing a veil? (with 5 years)

4 Middle East Quick Quiz How much do you know about the middle east? 5 quiz questions 4) What is the most populous Islamic country in the world? a. Egypt b. Indonesia c. Iran d. Saudi Arabia

5 Middle East Quick Quiz How much do you know about the middle east? 5 quiz questions 5) Which of following is Iraq? D C A B

6 Middle East Quick Quiz How much do you know about the middle east? 5 quiz questions Answers!! 1. A 2. Farsi 4. B (196 million people) 5. C

7 Iraq Basics Where?

8 Iraq Basics Who? Ethnic Groups A. Arab 2/3 of Iraq B. Kurd 1/4 of Iraq
Kurds B. Kurd 1/4 of Iraq Own language & customs Brutally suppressed in Iraq

9 Iraq Basics Who? Religion A. Shiite 3/5 of the population B. Sunni
Kurds B. Sunni 2/5th of population 90% of world’s Muslims C. Main differences: Who should lead the Muslim community?

10 Iraqi History A. British Mandate Post WWII British colony
B. British Backed Monarchy King chosen by England C. Dictatorships 1958 Baath Revolution King Faisal I of Iraq Original caption: Death of King Faisal. Faisal, King of Iraq, whose sudden death is just announced. Image: © Hulton-Deutsch Collection/CORBIS Date Photographed: ca. 1930

11 Thinking Slide: How might Iraqi history affect how they view the Americans & their British allies in the current war in Iraq?

12 Baath Party B. What does it do? Secular (non-religious) government
Uses oil $ for government projects Hussein begins to eliminate opponents HUSSEIN CARD AS PART OF DECK OF 55 CARDS OF US CHARACTERS WANTED Reuters/CORBIS

13 That all changes with the Iran-Iraq War
Iranian Revolution A. Why? Pro-western Shah unpopular because of his alliance w/US & secret police B. How? Religious (Shiite) revolution C. Results Fear in most neighboring Middle Eastern countries, especially majority Shiite Iraq

14 Iran-Iraq War A. Iraq’s Goals:
Remove Iran’s leaders, gain oil-land, & make Hussein a hero to neighbors B. How? Long brutal war, including use of chemical weapons on both sides UN creates a peace deal C. Results Iraq left with big war debt

15 Persian Gulf War (the 1st one!)
Why? 1.Iraq’s claimed to the land 2. Claimed Kuwait was stealing oil (“slant drilling”) 3. $ owed to countries Kuwait 4.Hussein thought no one would stop him

16 Persian Gulf War (the 1st one!)
What happened?? US invades w/full UN backing US bombs Iraqi military & civilian infrastructure We make no attempt to hold Iraqi towns or capture Saddam Hussein Destroyed Vehicles Along Kuwaiti Highway Destroyed cars and trucks line Kuwait's "Highway of Death" during the Persian Gulf War. The name was given to the stretch of road leading north out of Kuwait City which, while clogged with retreating Iraqi forces, was furiously bombed by coalition forces, killing most on it. Image: © Peter Turnley/CORBIS

17 Persian Gulf War Pictures
Kuwait Oil Well Fires from Space View from the space shuttle Atlantis of black smoke billowing from burning oil wells in Kuwait, which were set ablaze by retreating Iraqi troops at the end of the Persian Gulf War. Image: Digital image © 1996 CORBIS; Original image courtesy of NASA/CORBIS

18 Persian Gulf War Pictures
George Bush and Saddam Hussein on CNN Television Broadcast The faces of the US President George Bush and the leader of Iraq Saddam Hussein on a CNN television broadcast during the Gulf War, 1990. Image: © Zen Icknow/CORBIS Photographer: Zen Icknow Date Photographed: January 1990

19 Persian Gulf War (the 1st one!)
Results? UN Embargo & Oil for Food Program Peace Terms: Iraq accepts border with Kuwait, surrenders all WMDs, destroys all WMD production capability Iraq can sell oil in exchange for food & medicine

20 Thinking Slide: Do you think a program like the “oil for food” program was a good one given the situation at the time?

21 Second Iraq War Bush Doctrine: US can attack them before they attack us Why?:Bush argues Iraq is a threat because of WMDs How? First US pushes for tighter inspections, then invades claiming Hussein was not cooperating

22 Thinking Slide: Do you think that the Bush Doctrine will have be used as much by later presidents as others like the: Monroe Doctrine: Told Europe to keep its hands off the Americas Truman Doctrine: US pledges to support free peoples across the world against communism

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