Presentation on theme: "Active Reading Note-Taking Guide"— Presentation transcript:
1Active Reading Note-Taking Guide Chapter 4 The Ancient Greeks
2Chapter 4, Section 1 The Early Greeks (Pages 116–123) Main IdeaSetting a Purpose for Reading Think about these questions as you read:• How did early Greek kingdoms develop?• What ideas developed in Greek city-states?p. 65
3Geography of GreeceMainland Greece is a mountainous peninsula – a body of land surrounded by water.*The Aegean Sea, the Ionian Sea, and the Sea of CreteAncient Greeks made a living from the sea. They became fishers, traders, and sailors.*How would living on a mountainous peninsula affect the ancient Greeks? It would affect the type of food they could grow, their transportation, and their relationships with other Grecian communities.
4Terms to Know Academic Vocabulary Chapter 4, Section 1 The Early Greeks: The Geography of Greece (Page 117))Terms to KnowPeninsula: a body of land with water on three sidesAcademic Vocabularycommunity: a group of people living in the same placep. 66
5Chapter 4, Section 1 The Early Greeks: The Minoans (Pages 118)
6The MinoansWere not Greek , but they were the first civilization in the region that became Greece.They made their wealth from trade*Around 1450 BC, the Minoan civilization collapsed.*They built their ships from oak and cedar trees and sailed as far as Egypt and Syria. There, they traded pottery and stone vases for ivory and metals. They controlled much of the Mediterranean Sea by 2000 BC, and they kept the sea free from pirates.**Historians think undersea earthquakes caused giant waves that washed away the Minoan’s cities. Others think the cities were destroyed by a group of Greeks from the mainland. These invaders were called Mycenaeans.
7MinoansThe Minoans lived on the island of CRETE, which lies southeast of the Greek mainland. They were really into bull jumping, which is shown here in the fresco at the top and the vase at the bottom. Bull-jumping did not involve killing the bull, rather it was a test of both courage and agility. A bull would run at a jumper or line of jumpers; when it was close enough, the jumper would grab the bull's horns and either vault onto the bull's back or vault over the bull in a somersault and land on his or her feet on the other side of the bull. The difficulty of this vaulting is eloquently demonstrated in a Minoan vase: when you grab hold of a charging bull's horns, it jerks its head up violently—that's how it attacks with its horns.
8Palace of KnossosThe palace at Knossos (NAH-suhs) revealed how wealthy the Minoan society was. There were twisting passageways that led to all sorts of fabulous areas: private quarters for the royal family and storerooms packed with oil, wine, and grain. Other spaces were workshops for making jewelry, vases, and small ivory statues. The palace even had bathrooms, which was unusual because traditional indoor plumbing didn’t occur until much later.- It’s hard to imagine ancient an civilization with indoor plumbing; however, archaeologists uncovered plumbing, pipes running under the floors, at the Palace of Knossos. Apparently, the ancient Minoans even understood the concept of water pressure because pipes found at the bottom floors of the palace were larger in size than those found at the top. In addition, archaeologists found baths with pipes coming from the roof which indicated the ancient Minoans had filled their baths with solar-heated water. Unfortunately, indoor plumbing was " a technology that was forgotten when Cretan society collapsed.“ In America, there was not indoor plumbing until the 1800s AD, and this was in 1400s BC!
9The First Greek Kingdoms The Mycenaeans invaded the Greek mainland around 1900 BC and conquered the people living there.*The center of each Mycenaean kingdoms was a fortified palace on a hill.**They traded with the Minoans and replaced them as the major power on the Mediterranean in 1400 BC.They were even greater warriors, and their most famous victory is the Trojan War.King Agamemnon used trickery to win that war.*The Mycenaean leaders became the first Greek kings.**The ruler lived there, surrounded by giant stone walls and the nobles lived beyond those walls, and slaves took shelter inside this walled fortress area int times of danger.
10The Trojan Horse Beware of Greeks Bearing Gifts! Once upon a time, a long time ago, there was an ancient city named Troy. Troy was located on the coast of Asia, across the sea from the Greek city-state of Sparta. In those days, people used to build walls around their city to help protect them. Some walls were only a few feet high. Others as much as twenty feet high! The people built gates in the wall. The gates could be opened to let people inside the city. In times of war, the gates could be closed and locked to stop intruders from getting inside. Along the wall, inside of the city, a set of stairs wound up to the top. Warriors could stand at the top of the stairs and shoot arrows down at intruders who were trying to get inside the city. There were also holes built high on the wall. Archers could shoot arrows though the holes as well. If the wall was high enough and strong enough, it could do a pretty good job keeping intruders from coming inside. The walls around Troy were very high and very strong. According to the legend of Trojan Horse, for ten long years, the Greeks had been trying to get over the wall around the city of Troy. But the Greeks could not get over the wall. And the Trojans could not drive the Greeks away. Year after year they fought. And year after year, neither side won. One day, a Greek general, Odysseus, had a tricky idea. "Let's pretend to sail away," he suggested. "We'll leave a gift for Troy, a gift to announce the end of the war, a wooden horse with 30 men hidden inside. At night, these men can sneak out and open the gate of Troy!"The Greeks thought it was a brilliant idea. They had their best artists build the horse. It was a magnificent horse. When it was ready, the Greeks brought the huge wooden horse. They placed it by the gates of Troy. The Greeks sailed away. When the archers at the top of the stairs saw the Greeks leaving, they could not believe their eyes. The Trojans thought they had won the war. They laughed when they saw the horse. They loved it actually. The Greeks were famous for their art. The Trojans were delighted with their gift. They dragged the horse inside their city and closed the gates. Then they began to celebrate. That night, while the Trojan people slept soundly, the 30 Greek men hidden inside the wooden horse climbed out and opened the gates of Troy. That was the end of Troy.
11People To Meet Places To Locate Chapter 4, Section 1 The Early Greeks: The First Greek Kingdoms (Pages )People To MeetAgamemnon: Mycenaean king who won the Trojan War.Places To LocateMycenae: the city in which a walled palace was discovered by Heinrich Schliemann;Peloponnesus: peninsula in southwest Greecep. 69
12Dark Age of the Early Greek Kingdoms Mycenaean civilizations collapsed by 1100 BC. Earthquakes and fighting among the kingdoms had destroyed their hilltop forts.1100 B.C. – 750 B.C. was a difficult time for the Greek kingdoms.**It was not all bad though – a population shift occurred that helped expand the Greek culture.Dorians also invaded, bringing iron weapons and farm tools that were stronger.****Earthquakes and fighting among the kingdoms had destroyed their hilltop forts.Trade slowed, and poverty spread. People stopped learning how to read and write and farmers only grew enough for their own families. Over time, the Greek people forgot how to do all of the things they were once known for, so historians call this period the Dark Age.***These iron tools were much less expensive than those made of bronze, and people slowly began farming again and producing a surplus of food.
13A Move to ColonizeThe population rose quickly as Greece recovered from its Dark Ages.*Cities began sending people outside of Greece to start colonies – a colony is a settlement in a new territory that keeps close ties to its homeland.**Colonies traded regularly with their parent cities – shipping them grains, metals, fish, timber, and enslaved people.In return, the colonists received pottery, wine, & olive oil from the mainland.*They couldn’t grow enough food to feed everyone, so…**Adventurous Greeks headed out to Italy, France, Spain, North Africa, and western Asia. With each new colony, Greek culture spread farther.
14Chapter 4, Section 1 The Early Greeks: A Move to Colonize (Page 121) Sum It UpHow did the new Greek colonies affect industry?The growth of trade between colonies and parent cities led to a growth in industry.p. 71
15Chapter 4, Section 1 The Early Greeks: A Move to Colonize (Page 121) PreviewingSkipTerms To Knowpolis: Greek city-state;agora: open area in a polis that served as a market and a place to meet and debateAcademic Vocabularyvary: to show change;debate: to argue or discusp. 71
16The Polis*By the end of the Dark Age, many nobles who owned large estates had overthrown the kings.**Each city-state was known as a polis and was like a small, independent country.***Below the acropolis was as an open area called the agora, which was used for a market area and a place to meet for a debate.*Did you know that the term “politics” comes from polis, the Greek term for city-state.**They created city-states.***Sometimes the acropolis also served as a religious center. Temples and altars were built there to honor the many Greek gods and goddesses.
17What was Greek citizenship? Citizens are members of a political community who treat each other as equals and who have rights & responsibilities.*Athens dropped the land owning requirement, but slaves & foreign-born residents were still excluded.Citizens could choose officials & pass laws. They had the right to vote, hold office, own property, & defend themselves in court.**The Greeks were the first people to develop the idea of citizenship, but that word applies to almost everyone in a society. In ancient Greece, you had to own land to be a citizen.**Citizens called hoplites took pride in fighting for their city-state, but their was a lack of unity among the soldiers b/c of the different city-states.
18Chapter 4, Section 1 The Early Greeks (Pages 116–123) As you read pages 122–123 in your textbook, complete this diagram by filling in details about the polis.p.65made up of a town or city and the surrounding countryside;created by noblesPolisMain gathering place was the acropolislike a tiny independent country
21Outlining What were the Mycenaean Kingdoms like? Chapter 4, Section 1 The Early Greeks: The First Greek Kingdoms (Pages )OutliningWhat were the Mycenaean Kingdoms like?A. The center was a protected palaceon a hill surrounded by farms.B. Artisans, workers, and government officials all worked in the palaces.p. 68
22Outlining II. Power From trade and War Chapter 4, Section 1 The Early Greeks: The First Greek Kingdoms (Pages )OutliningII. Power From trade and WarA. Mycenaeans learned from the Minoan culture.B. The Mycenaeans replaced the Minoans as the major power in the Mediterranean.p. 68
23Outlining III. What Was the Dark Age? Chapter 4, Section 1 The Early Greeks: The First Greek Kingdoms (Pages )OutliningIII. What Was the Dark Age?A. The Mycenaean civilization collapsed by 110 B.C., and the Dark Age began.B. The Dorians invaded Greece, bringing more advanced technology, resulting in farming, trade, and a new alphabet.p. 68
24Sum It Up What changes occurred during the Dark Age in ancient Greece? Chapter 4, Section 1 The Early Greeks: The First Greek Kingdoms (Pages )Sum It UpWhat changes occurred during the Dark Age in ancient Greece?Changes include slowing of trade, poverty, a decrease in learning and craftwork, and a population shift.p. 70
25Chapter 4, Section 1 The Early Greeks: The Polis (Pages 122-123) Determining The Main IdeaSkipTerms To Knowcolony: group that settles in a distant landAcademic Vocabularyculture: traits, beliefs, and behaviors shared by a group of peopleoverseas: located across the seap. 70
26Chapter 4, Section 1 The Early Greeks: The Polis (Pages 122-123) Terms To ReviewCity-State (Ch. 1): Greek city-states were like tiny, independent countries.Sum It UpHow did citizenship make the Greeks different from other ancient peoples?The Greeks were the first to treat a group of people (citizens) as equals who had rights and responsibilities. Other cultures treated most people as subjects with no rights.p. 71
27Chapter 4, Section 1 The Early Greeks (Pages 116–123) Section Wrap UpHow did early Greek kingdoms develop?The Mycenaeans built the first Greek kingdoms. They invaded the Greek mainland and conquered the people living there. They built palaces and developed trade as they spread their power across the Mediterranean region.p. 72
28Chapter 4, Section 1 The Early Greeks (Pages 116–123) Section Wrap UpWhat ideas developed in Greek city-states?The Greek city-states were the first to develop the idea of citizenship. They developed armies of ordinary citizens.p. 72
30Chapter 4, Section 2 Sparta and Athens (Pages 124–130) Main IdeaSetting a Purpose for Reading Think about these questions as you read:Why did Spartans conquer and control groups of people?How were the people of Athens different from the people of Sparta?p. 73
31Chapter 4, Section 2 Sparta and Athens (Pages 124–130) Reading StrategyAs you read pages 125–130 in your textbook, complete this graphic organizer comparing and contrasting life in Sparta and Athens.p. 73AthensSpartaset up colonies; valued education for boys; girls learned household duties; reforms lead to democratic ideas; allowed male citizens to vote; included a council and assemblyBothconquered and enslaved neighbors; controlling government; trained boys and men for war; girls were trained in sports; oligarchy; discouraged foreign visitors and travel; frowned upon study; fell behind in tradeplayed key roles in defending Greece
32Chapter 4, Section 2 Sparta and Athens: Tyranny in the City-States (Pages 125–126) Summarizing1. ______________, ______________, and _____________ all wanted a part in Greek government. Their unhappiness led to the rise of ______________, men who took power by force. These tyrants took power away from the ______________.2. Most Greeks wanted all ______________ to be a part of the government. So most city-states became either ______________ or ______________.Small farmersmerchantsartisanstyrantsnoblesThe nobles had seized power from the kings, but they began to be challenged by the farmers. The farmers needed money to live on until they could harvest and sell their crops, so they would borrow money from the nobles and promise to give up their land if they could not repay the loans. The farmers were losing quite a bit of land, and they began to demand changes in the power structure. Although merchants and artisans were quite wealthy, they were not considered citizens because they did not own land. Their growing unhappiness led to a rise of tyrants. Tyrants made themselves popular by building new marketplaces, temples, and walls. However, rule by one person was the opposite of what most Greeks wanted. They wanted all of the citizens to be able to participate in the government. By 500 BC, tyrants had fallen out of favor in Greece.citizensoligarchiesdemocraciesp. 74
33Chapter 4, Section 2 Sparta and Athens: Tyranny in the City-States (Pages 125–126) Academic VocabularyStructure: the way parts are put together to form a wholeparticipate: to take part in somethingp. 74
34Terms To Know Tyrant: someone who takes power by force Chapter 4, Section 2 Sparta and Athens: Tyranny in the City-States (Pages 125–126)Terms To KnowTyrant: someone who takes power by forceOligarchy: government in which a small group of people holds powerDemocracy: government in which all citizens share in running the governmentp. 74
35Sum It Up Why were tyrants so popular in the city-states? Chapter 4, Section 2 Sparta and Athens: Tyranny in the City-States (Pages 125–126)Sum It UpWhy were tyrants so popular in the city-states?Small farmers, merchants, and artisans wanted change. The tyrants could overthrow the nobles with the backing of the common people. They built new marketplaces, temples, and walls.p. 75
36Chapter 4, Section 2 Sparta and Athens: Sparta (Pages 126–127) Drawing ConclusionsSkipTerms To Knowhelots: people who were conquered and enslaved by the ancient SpartansAcademic Vocabularyenforce: to make someone obey by using forceSpartans needed more land as they expanded, but they did not set up colonies as other city-states did. Instead, they conquered and enslaved the neighbors around them.If you guys think you have it tough, imagine what it was like to grow up in Sparta! Who remembers what Spartan boys had to do at age seven? They were forced to leave their families and live in barracks and were harshly treated to make them tough. After they turned 12, so at your age or what you will be soon, they were not allowed to wear undergarments and were only given one coat to last them all year. They were only allowed to sleep on beds made of reeds (long, hard grass). After they turned 20, they entered the regular army and remained in the barracks for 10 more years.What is your least favorite meal? Imagine how bad you think that tastes, and then imagine someone telling you that you had to eat pork boiled in animal blood, salt, and vinegar! ARGH! Can you imagine!?!? So, next time your family says you have to eat your peas, just think, “It could be worse!”Sparta women were more free than other Greek women b/c their husbands lived in the barracks, while they lived at home. They could own property and go wherever they wanted to go.p
37Chapter 4, Section 2 Sparta and Athens: Sparta (Pages 126–127) Terms To ReviewOligarchy( Ch.4): In an oligarchy, the government is run by just a few peopleSum It UpWhy did the Spartans stress military training?Spartans wanted to conquer their neighbors and control the large helot population.p
38Chapter 4, Section 2 Sparta and Athens: Sparta (Pages 126–127) Sparta’s government was an oligarchy. Two kings headed a council of elders, who presented laws to an assembly. All Spartan men over the age of 30 belonged to an assembly. They voted on council’s laws and chose five people to be ephors each year. Ephors enforced the laws and managed tax collection. Spartans focused more on military training than government or other education for their people, so they fell behind in Science and other subjects, but their soldiers were far stronger and swifter than many in the area.p
39Chapter 4, Section 2 Sparta and Athens: Athens (Pages 128–130) ConnectingSkip*People To MeetSolon: a noble, trusted by both farmers and nobles, who canceled farmers debts and freed enslaved peoplePeisistratus: a tyrant who seized power in 560 B.C.; he provided for the poorCleisthenes: the most important leader of Athens following Peisistratus; he gave the people more power in governmentUnlike Spartans, Athenians were more interested in building a democracy than building a military force. Athenian teachers taught boys to read, write, and do arithmetic. Another teacher taught them sports. A third teacher taught them to sing and to play a stringed instrument called the lyre. This encouraged a well-rounded society, where boys became citizens at age 18 and finished school. Girls stayed at home and learned spinning, weaving, and other household duties. It was only in wealthy families that girls learned to read, write and play the lyre.p. 76
40Athens Early Athens was ruled by landowning nobles during the 600s BC. Around 600 BC, the Athenians began to rebel against the nobles.*To help with the situation, nobles turned to the one man both sides trusted: a noble named Solon.**A tyrant named Peisistratus seized power in 560 B.C.***The most important leader after Peisistratus died was Cleisthenes*****Most farmers owed the nobles money, and many sold themselves into slavery to pay their debt.**He cancelled all of the farmers debt & freed those who had become slaves. He also allowed all male citizens to participate in the assembly and law courts. Solon had many more reforms, which were very popular among the people. After Solon, there were 30 years of turmoil.***He won the support of the poor by dividing large estates among landless farmers. He also loaned money to the poor and gave them jobs building temples and other public works.****He reorganized the assembly to play the central role in governing & gave members new powers. They could openly debate, hear court cases, and appoint army generals. Most importantly, Cleisthenes created a new council of 500 citizens to help the assembly carry out daily business. The Athenians chose the members of the council each year in a lottery, which they thought was more fair than voting b/c it would favor the rich. Cleisthenes is credited with making the government in Athens a democracy.
41Chapter 4, Section 2 Sparta and Athens: Athens (Pages 126–127) Academic Vocabularynonetheless: howeverprocess: a series of actions leading to an end resultTerms To Reviewdemocracy( Ch.4): In an democracy, many people can vote and have a vote in their governmentp. 77
42Chapter 4, Section 2 Sparta and Athens: Sparta (Pages 126–127) Sum It UpHow did Cleisthenes build a democracy in Athens?He reorganized the assembly to play the central role in governing and created a new council to help the assembly carry out daily business.p. 77
43Chapter 4, Section 2 Sparta and Athens (Pages 124–130) Section Wrap UpWhy did Spartans conquer and control groups of people?The Spartans needed more land to grow, so they conquered and enslaved their neighbors. They used military force to keep the people they had conquered from rebelling.p. 77
44Chapter 4, Section 2 Sparta and Athens (Pages 124–130) Section Wrap UpHow were the people of Athens different from the people of Sparta?The Athenians valued learning as well as sport. Boys were educated. Girls learned household duties. Athenians also allowed citizens a voice in government.p. 77
46Chapter 4, Section 3 Persia Attacks The Greeks (Pages 131–137) Main IdeaSetting a Purpose for Reading Think about these questions as you read:• How did the Persian Empire bring together such a wide area?• What role did Athens and Sparta play in defeating the Persians?p. 78
47Chapter 4, Section 3 Persia Attacks The Greeks (Pages 131–137) Reading StrategyRulerAccomplishmentCyrusunited Persians into powerful kingdom;captured Babylon; treated all subjects wellDariusreorganized government to make itwork better; divided the empire into states; defeated in the Battle of MarathonXerxeslaunched invasion of Greece to avenge his fatherp. 78
48Outlining I. The Rise of the Persian Empire Chapter 4, Section 3 Persia Attacks The Greeks: The Persian Empire (Pages 132–133)OutliningI. The Rise of the Persian EmpireA. Cyrus’s armies conquered many landsto build an empire.B. Other leaders added territory and built miles of roads to connect their holdings.p. 79
49Outlining II. What Was Persian Government Like? Chapter 4, Section 3 Persia Attacks The Greeks: The Persian Empire (Pages 132–133)OutliningII. What Was Persian Government Like?A. Darius reorganized the governmentto make it work better.B. The government paid full-time soldiers to protect the king’s power.p. 79
50Outlining III. The Persian Religion A. The Persian religion was called Chapter 4, Section 3 Persia Attacks The Greeks: The Persian Empire (Pages 132–133)OutliningIII. The Persian ReligionA. The Persian religion was calledZoroastrianism.B. Zoroaster believed in one god andtaught that humans had the freedomto choose between good and evil.p. 79
51Terms To Know People To Meet Satrapies: states that formed the empire. Chapter 4, Section 3 Persia Attacks The Greeks: The Persian Empire (Pages 132–133)Terms To KnowSatrapies: states that formed the empire.Satrap: an official that ran a SatrapyZoroastrianism: the religion of PersiaPeople To MeetCyrus the Great: leader who united the Persians into the largest empire in the worldp. 79
52Academic Vocabulary Terms To Review Chapter 4, Section 3 Persia Attacks The Greeks: The Persian Empire (Pages 132–133)Academic Vocabularyvision: mystical experience of seeing thesupernaturaldominate: to control or rule by superior powerTerms To ReviewNomads (Ch. 1): Hunters and gatherers were nomads because they had to move from place to place to find food.Empire (Ch. 1): Persia conquered many lands to build its great empire.p. 80
53Sum It Up Why did Darius create Satrapies? Chapter 4, Section 3 Persia Attacks The Greeks: The Persian Empire (Pages 132–133)Sum It UpWhy did Darius create Satrapies?The empire was very big and difficult to manage. Dividing it into smaller states made the government work better.p. 80
54Sequencing 1. ____ Greek army crushed the Persian army at Plataea Chapter 4, Section 3 Persia Attacks The Greeks: The Persian Wars (Pages 134–137)Sequencing1. ____ Greek army crushed the Persian army at Plataea2. ____ Persian fleet landed 20,000 soldiers on the plain of Marathon3. ____ Athenian army helped the Greeks in Asia Minor rebel against Persian rulers4. ____ Xerxes launches invasion of Greece5. ____ Alexander invades the Persian Empire6. ____ Darius dies521463p. 81
55Chapter 4, Section 3 Persia Attacks The Greeks: The Persian Wars (Pages 134–137) Places To LocateMarathon: plain where the Persian army was defeated by the Greeks;Thermopylae: a narrow pass through the mountains where the Greeks fought bravely against the Persia.Salamis: a narrow strip of water where the Greeks destroyed almost the entire Persian fleet.Platea: location of the battle where the Greeks crushed the Persian army, convincing the Persians to retreat.p. 81
56People To Meet Academic Vocabulary Chapter 4, Section 3 Persia Attacks The Greeks: The Persian Wars (Pages 134–137)People To MeetXerxes: son of Darius who vowed revenge against the Athenians and launched a new invasion of GreeceThemistocles: Athenian generalAcademic VocabularyInternal: located insidep
57Chapter 4, Section 3 Persia Attacks The Greeks: The Persian Wars (Pages 134–137)
58Sum It Up What led to the Persian Wars? Chapter 4, Section 3 Persia Attacks The Greeks: The Persian Wars (Pages 134–137)Sum It UpWhat led to the Persian Wars?Greeks setting up colonies in the Mediterranean area often clashed with the Persians. In 499 B.C., the Athenian army helped the Greeks in Asia Minor rebel against their Persian rulers. King Darius decided that the mainland Greeks had to be stopped from interfering in the Persian Empire.p. 82
59Chapter 4, Section 3 Persia Attacks The Greeks (Pages 131–137) Section Wrap UpHow did the Persian Empire bring together such a wide area?Cyrus united the Persians into a powerful kingdom and sent armies to take over Mesopotamia, Asia Minor, Syria, Canaan, and the Phoenician cities. Cyrus’s merciful rule helped hold the empire togetherp. 82
60Chapter 4, Section 3 Persia Attacks The Greeks (Pages 131–137) Section Wrap UpWhat role did Athens and Sparta play in defeating the Persians?The Athenians defeated the Persians at the Battle of Marathon. Then the Athenians and Spartans united to defeat the Persians when Xerxes launched an invasion. Sparta sent the most soldiers. Athens provided the navy.p. 82
61Chapter 4, Section 4 The Age of Pericles (Pages 138–146) Main IdeaSetting a Purpose for Reading Think about these questions as you read:• How did Athens change under the rule of Pericles?• What happened when Sparta and Athens went to war for control of Greece?p. 83
62Chapter 4, Section 4 The Age of Pericles (Pages 138–146) Reading StrategyAs you read pages 139–144 in your textbook, create a circle graph showing how many citizens, foreigners, and enslaved people lived in Athens in the 400s B.C.Citizens 150,000Foreigners 35,000Enslaved People 100,000p. 83
63Evaluating Skip Terms to Know Chapter 4, Section 4 The Age of Pericles: The Athenian Empire (Pages 139–140)Evaluating SkipTerms to KnowDirect democracy: system of government in which people vote firsthand to decide government matters and make laws and policiesRepresentative democracy: system of government in which people elect a smaller group of people to make laws and decisions on their behalfPhilosophers: people who pursue wisdomp. 84
64Places To Locate People To Meet Academic Vocabulary Chapter 4, Section 4 The Age of Pericles: The Athenian Empire (Pages 139–140)Places To LocateDelos: island serving as headquarters to the Delian LeaguePeople To MeetPericles: leading figure in Athenian politics after the Persian WarsAcademic Vocabularybehalf: in the interest ofachieve: to carry out with successp
65Chapter 4, Section 4 The Age of Pericles: The Athenian Empire (Pages 139–140) Sum It UpWhat is the difference between a direct democracy and a representative democracy?In a direct democracy, individuals have a direct voice in their government. In a representative democracy, individuals elect people to make decisions on their behalf.p. 85
66Questioning People To Meet Academic Vocabulary Skip Chapter 4, Section 4 The Age of Pericles: Daily Life in Athens (Pages 142–144)QuestioningSkipPeople To MeetAspasia: well-educated woman in Athens who shaped the ideas of Plato and was consulted by Athenian leadersAcademic Vocabularyeconomy: a system of producing and managing wealthphilosophy: a system or group of thoughts or beliefsp
67Sum It Up How did Athenian men and women spend their time? Chapter 4, Section 4 The Age of Pericles: The Athenian Empire (Pages 139–140)Sum It UpHow did Athenian men and women spend their time?Men worked in the morning, then exercised or attended meetings of the assembly. Upper class men enjoyed all-male gatherings in the evenings. Women took care of household duties and rarely went out. They could leave the house only with a male relative. Women had no political rights. Poor women might also work.p. 85
68Predicting Academic Vocabulary Terms To Review Skip Chapter 4, Section 4 The Age of Pericles: The Peloponnesian War (pages 144–146)PredictingSkipAcademic Vocabularyframework: structure for supporting something elsecooperate: to work together toward a common goalTerms To ReviewColony (Ch. 4): Each colony in America was originally part of England.p. 87
69Sum It Up What effects did the Peloponnesian War have on Greece? Chapter 4, Section 4 The Age of Pericles: The Peloponnesian War (pages 144–146)Sum It UpWhat effects did the Peloponnesian War have on Greece?The Spartans tore down the Athenian empire in their victory. The long war weakened all the major Greek city-states. Many were dead and left without farms or jobs, and the Greeks could no longer unite to fight together.p. 88
70Chapter 4, Section 4 The Age of Pericles (Pages 138–146) Section Wrap UpHow did Athens change under the rule of Pericles?Athens dominated the Delian League. The government became more democratic. Culture blossomed. Artists, architects, writers, and philosophers were supported.p. 88
71Chapter 4, Section 4 The Age of Pericles (Pages 138–146) Section Wrap UpWhat happened when Sparta and Athens went to war for control of Greece?Ultimately, all of Greece was weakened by the long war. The Spartans surrounded Athens for more than 25 years. Many died, lost farms, and lost jobs. Ultimately the victors, the Spartans destroyed the Athenian empire. But the city-states rebelled against Spartan control.p. 88