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Active Reading Note-Taking Guide Chapter 4 The Ancient Greeks.

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Presentation on theme: "Active Reading Note-Taking Guide Chapter 4 The Ancient Greeks."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Active Reading Note-Taking Guide Chapter 4 The Ancient Greeks

3 The Early Greeks Chapter 4, Section 1 The Early Greeks (Pages 116–123) Main Idea Setting a Purpose for Reading Think about these questions as you read: How did early Greek kingdoms develop? What ideas developed in Greek city-states? p. 65

4 Geography of Greece Mainland Greece is a mountainous peninsula – a body of land surrounded by water.* The Aegean Sea, the Ionian Sea, and the Sea of Crete Ancient Greeks made a living from the sea. They became fishers, traders, and sailors.

5 The Early Greeks: The Geography of Greece Chapter 4, Section 1 The Early Greeks: The Geography of Greece (Page 117)) Terms to Know Peninsula: a body of land with water on three sides Academic Vocabulary community: a group of people living in the same place p. 66

6 The Early Greeks: The Minoans Chapter 4, Section 1 The Early Greeks: The Minoans (Pages 118)

7 The Minoans Were not Greek, but they were the first civilization in the region that became Greece. They made their wealth from trade* Around 1450 BC, the Minoan civilization collapsed.

8 Minoans

9 Palace of Knossos

10 The First Greek Kingdoms The Mycenaeans invaded the Greek mainland around 1900 BC and conquered the people living there.* The center of each Mycenaean kingdoms was a fortified palace on a hill.** They traded with the Minoans and replaced them as the major power on the Mediterranean in 1400 BC. They were even greater warriors, and their most famous victory is the Trojan War. King Agamemnon used trickery to win that war.

11 The Trojan Horse

12 The Early Greeks: The First Greek Kingdoms Chapter 4, Section 1 The Early Greeks: The First Greek Kingdoms (Pages 119-120) People To Meet Agamemnon: Mycenaean king who won the Trojan War. Places To Locate Mycenae: the city in which a walled palace was discovered by Heinrich Schliemann; Peloponnesus: peninsula in southwest Greece p. 69

13 Dark Age of the Early Greek Kingdoms Mycenaean civilizations collapsed by 1100 BC. Earthquakes and fighting among the kingdoms had destroyed their hilltop forts. 1100 B.C. – 750 B.C. was a difficult time for the Greek kingdoms.** It was not all bad though – a population shift occurred that helped expand the Greek culture. Dorians also invaded, bringing iron weapons and farm tools that were stronger.***

14 A Move to Colonize The population rose quickly as Greece recovered from its Dark Ages.* Cities began sending people outside of Greece to start colonies – a colony is a settlement in a new territory that keeps close ties to its homeland.** Colonies traded regularly with their parent cities – shipping them grains, metals, fish, timber, and enslaved people. In return, the colonists received pottery, wine, & olive oil from the mainland.

15 The Early Greeks: A Move to Colonize Chapter 4, Section 1 The Early Greeks: A Move to Colonize (Page 121) Sum It Up How did the new Greek colonies affect industry? The growth of trade between colonies and parent cities led to a growth in industry. p. 71

16 Previewing Skip Terms To Know polis: Greek city-state; agora: open area in a polis that served as a market and a place to meet and debate Academic Vocabulary vary: to show change; debate: to argue or discus p. 71

17 The Polis *By the end of the Dark Age, many nobles who owned large estates had overthrown the kings.** Each city-state was known as a polis and was like a small, independent country.*** Below the acropolis was as an open area called the agora, which was used for a market area and a place to meet for a debate.

18 What was Greek citizenship? Citizens are members of a political community who treat each other as equals and who have rights & responsibilities.* Athens dropped the land owning requirement, but slaves & foreign-born residents were still excluded. Citizens could choose officials & pass laws. They had the right to vote, hold office, own property, & defend themselves in court.**

19 The Early Greeks Chapter 4, Section 1 The Early Greeks (Pages 116–123) As you read pages 122–123 in your textbook, complete this diagram by filling in details about the polis. p.65 Polis created by nobles like a tiny independent country made up of a town or city and the surrounding countryside; Main gathering place was the acropolis

20 The Acropolis

21

22 The Early Greeks: The First Greek Kingdoms Chapter 4, Section 1 The Early Greeks: The First Greek Kingdoms (Pages 119-120) Outlining I.What were the Mycenaean Kingdoms like? A. The center was a protected palace on a hill surrounded by farms. B. Artisans, workers, and government officials all worked in the palaces. p. 68

23 The Early Greeks: The First Greek Kingdoms Chapter 4, Section 1 The Early Greeks: The First Greek Kingdoms (Pages 119-120) Outlining II. Power From trade and War A. Mycenaeans learned from the Minoan culture. B. The Mycenaeans replaced the Minoans as the major power in the Mediterranean. p. 68

24 Outlining III. What Was the Dark Age? A. The Mycenaean civilization collapsed by 110 B.C., and the Dark Age began. B. The Dorians invaded Greece, bringing more advanced technology, resulting in farming, trade, and a new alphabet. p. 68

25 Sum It Up What changes occurred during the Dark Age in ancient Greece? Changes include slowing of trade, poverty, a decrease in learning and craftwork, and a population shift. p. 70

26 The Early Greeks: The Polis Chapter 4, Section 1 The Early Greeks: The Polis (Pages 122-123) Determining The Main Idea Skip Terms To Know colony: group that settles in a distant land Academic Vocabulary culture: traits, beliefs, and behaviors shared by a group of people overseas: located across the sea p. 70

27 Terms To Review City-State (Ch. 1): Greek city-states were like tiny, independent countries. Sum It Up How did citizenship make the Greeks different from other ancient peoples? The Greeks were the first to treat a group of people (citizens) as equals who had rights and responsibilities. Other cultures treated most people as subjects with no rights. p. 71

28 The Early Greeks Chapter 4, Section 1 The Early Greeks (Pages 116–123) Section Wrap Up How did early Greek kingdoms develop? The Mycenaeans built the first Greek kingdoms. They invaded the Greek mainland and conquered the people living there. They built palaces and developed trade as they spread their power across the Mediterranean region. p. 72

29 Section Wrap Up What ideas developed in Greek city-states? The Greek city-states were the first to develop the idea of citizenship. They developed armies of ordinary citizens. p. 72

30 Chapter 4 Section 2

31 Chapter 4, Section 2 Sparta and Athens (Pages 124–130) Main Idea Setting a Purpose for Reading Think about these questions as you read: Why did Spartans conquer and control groups of people? How were the people of Athens different from the people of Sparta? p. 73

32 Reading Strategy As you read pages 125–130 in your textbook, complete this graphic organizer comparing and contrasting life in Sparta and Athens. p. 73 conquered and enslaved neighbors; controlling government; trained boys and men for war; girls were trained in sports; oligarchy; discouraged foreign visitors and travel; frowned upon study; fell behind in trade set up colonies; valued education for boys; girls learned household duties; reforms lead to democratic ideas; allowed male citizens to vote; included a council and assembly played key roles in defending Greece

33 Chapter 4, Section 2 Sparta and Athens: Tyranny in the City-States (Pages 125–126) Summarizing 1. ______________, ______________, and _____________ all wanted a part in Greek government. Their unhappiness led to the rise of ______________, men who took power by force. These tyrants took power away from the ______________. 2. Most Greeks wanted all ______________ to be a part of the government. So most city-states became either ______________ or ______________. p. 74 Small farmersmerchants artisans tyrants nobles citizens oligarchies democracies

34 Academic Vocabulary Structure: the way parts are put together to form a whole participate: to take part in something p. 74

35 Terms To Know Tyrant: someone who takes power by force Oligarchy: government in which a small group of people holds power Democracy: government in which all citizens share in running the government p. 74

36 Sum It Up Why were tyrants so popular in the city-states? Small farmers, merchants, and artisans wanted change. The tyrants could overthrow the nobles with the backing of the common people. They built new marketplaces, temples, and walls. p. 75

37 Chapter 4, Section 2 Sparta and Athens: Sparta (Pages 126–127) Drawing Conclusions Skip Terms To Know helots: people who were conquered and enslaved by the ancient Spartans Academic Vocabulary enforce: to make someone obey by using force p. 75-76

38 Terms To Review Oligarchy( Ch.4): In an oligarchy, the government is run by just a few people Sum It Up Why did the Spartans stress military training? Spartans wanted to conquer their neighbors and control the large helot population. p. 75-76

39 p. 75-76

40 Chapter 4, Section 2 Sparta and Athens: Athens (Pages 128–130) Connecting Skip *People To Meet Solon: a noble, trusted by both farmers and nobles, who canceled farmers debts and freed enslaved people Peisistratus: a tyrant who seized power in 560 B.C.; he provided for the poor Cleisthenes: the most important leader of Athens following Peisistratus; he gave the people more power in government p. 76

41 Athens Early Athens was ruled by landowning nobles during the 600s BC. Around 600 BC, the Athenians began to rebel against the nobles.* To help with the situation, nobles turned to the one man both sides trusted: a noble named Solon.** A tyrant named Peisistratus seized power in 560 B.C.*** The most important leader after Peisistratus died was Cleisthenes****

42 Chapter 4, Section 2 Sparta and Athens: Athens (Pages 126–127) Academic Vocabulary nonetheless: however process: a series of actions leading to an end result Terms To Review democracy( Ch.4): In an democracy, many people can vote and have a vote in their government p. 77

43 Chapter 4, Section 2 Sparta and Athens: Sparta (Pages 126–127) Sum It Up How did Cleisthenes build a democracy in Athens? He reorganized the assembly to play the central role in governing and created a new council to help the assembly carry out daily business. p. 77

44 Chapter 4, Section 2 Sparta and Athens (Pages 124–130) Section Wrap Up Why did Spartans conquer and control groups of people? The Spartans needed more land to grow, so they conquered and enslaved their neighbors. They used military force to keep the people they had conquered from rebelling. p. 77

45 Section Wrap Up How were the people of Athens different from the people of Sparta? The Athenians valued learning as well as sport. Boys were educated. Girls learned household duties. Athenians also allowed citizens a voice in government. p. 77

46 Guided Reading 4-2 Chapter 4, Section 2 Sparta and Athens: Guided Reading 4-2 (Pages 124–130) I.Tyrants II.oligarchies; democracies A.Few B.citizens III.Sparta A.Helots 1.seven 2.sports B.Government 1.Kings; elders 1.28; 60 2.assembly 2.30 1.Voted 2.ephors IV.Democracy A.Solon; debts B.Peistratus C.Cleisthenes 1.Assembly 2.500

47 Chapter 4, Section 3 Persia Attacks The Greeks (Pages 131–137) Main Idea Setting a Purpose for Reading Think about these questions as you read: How did the Persian Empire bring together such a wide area? What role did Athens and Sparta play in defeating the Persians? p. 78

48 Chapter 4, Section 3 Persia Attacks The Greeks (Pages 131–137) Reading Strategy RulerAccomplishment Cyrusunited Persians into powerful kingdom; captured Babylon; treated all subjects well Dariusreorganized government to make it work better; divided the empire into states; defeated in the Battle of Marathon Xerxeslaunched invasion of Greece to avenge his father p. 78

49 Chapter 4, Section 3 Persia Attacks The Greeks: The Persian Empire (Pages 132–133) Outlining I. The Rise of the Persian Empire A. Cyrus’s armies conquered many lands to build an empire. B. Other leaders added territory and built miles of roads to connect their holdings. p. 79

50 Outlining II. What Was Persian Government Like? A. Darius reorganized the government to make it work better. B. The government paid full-time soldiers to protect the king’s power. p. 79

51 Outlining III. The Persian Religion A. The Persian religion was called Zoroastrianism. B. Zoroaster believed in one god and taught that humans had the freedom to choose between good and evil. p. 79

52 Terms To Know Satrapies: states that formed the empire. Satrap: an official that ran a Satrapy Zoroastrianism: the religion of Persia People To Meet Cyrus the Great: leader who united the Persians into the largest empire in the world p. 79

53 Academic Vocabulary vision: mystical experience of seeing the supernatural dominate: to control or rule by superior power Terms To Review Nomads (Ch. 1): Hunters and gatherers were nomads because they had to move from place to place to find food. Empire (Ch. 1): Persia conquered many lands to build its great empire. p. 80

54 Sum It Up Why did Darius create Satrapies? The empire was very big and difficult to manage. Dividing it into smaller states made the government work better. p. 80

55 Chapter 4, Section 3 Persia Attacks The Greeks: The Persian Wars (Pages 134–137) Sequencing 1. ____ Greek army crushed the Persian army at Plataea 2. ____ Persian fleet landed 20,000 soldiers on the plain of Marathon 3. ____ Athenian army helped the Greeks in Asia Minor rebel against Persian rulers 4. ____ Xerxes launches invasion of Greece 5. ____ Alexander invades the Persian Empire 6. ____ Darius dies p. 81 1 2 3 4 5 6

56 Places To Locate Marathon: plain where the Persian army was defeated by the Greeks; Thermopylae: a narrow pass through the mountains where the Greeks fought bravely against the Persia. Salamis: a narrow strip of water where the Greeks destroyed almost the entire Persian fleet. Platea: location of the battle where the Greeks crushed the Persian army, convincing the Persians to retreat. p. 81

57 People To Meet Xerxes: son of Darius who vowed revenge against the Athenians and launched a new invasion of Greece Themistocles: Athenian general Academic Vocabulary Internal: located inside p. 81-82

58 p. 81-82

59 Sum It Up What led to the Persian Wars? Greeks setting up colonies in the Mediterranean area often clashed with the Persians. In 499 B.C., the Athenian army helped the Greeks in Asia Minor rebel against their Persian rulers. King Darius decided that the mainland Greeks had to be stopped from interfering in the Persian Empire. p. 82

60 Chapter 4, Section 3 Persia Attacks The Greeks (Pages 131–137) Section Wrap Up How did the Persian Empire bring together such a wide area? Cyrus united the Persians into a powerful kingdom and sent armies to take over Mesopotamia, Asia Minor, Syria, Canaan, and the Phoenician cities. Cyrus’s merciful rule helped hold the empire together p. 82

61 Section Wrap Up What role did Athens and Sparta play in defeating the Persians? The Athenians defeated the Persians at the Battle of Marathon. Then the Athenians and Spartans united to defeat the Persians when Xerxes launched an invasion. Sparta sent the most soldiers. Athens provided the navy. p. 82

62 Chapter 4, Section 4 The Age of Pericles (Pages 138–146) Main Idea Setting a Purpose for Reading Think about these questions as you read: How did Athens change under the rule of Pericles? What happened when Sparta and Athens went to war for control of Greece? p. 83

63 Chapter 4, Section 4 The Age of Pericles (Pages 138–146) Reading Strategy As you read pages 139–144 in your textbook, create a circle graph showing how many citizens, foreigners, and enslaved people lived in Athens in the 400s B.C. p. 83 Citizens 150,000 Foreigners 35,000 Enslaved People 100,000

64 Chapter 4, Section 4 The Age of Pericles: The Athenian Empire (Pages 139–140) Evaluating S kip Terms to Know Direct democracy: system of government in which people vote firsthand to decide government matters and make laws and policies Representative democracy: system of government in which people elect a smaller group of people to make laws and decisions on their behalf Philosophers: people who pursue wisdom p. 84

65 Places To Locate Delos: island serving as headquarters to the Delian League People To Meet Pericles: leading figure in Athenian politics after the Persian Wars Academic Vocabulary behalf: in the interest of achieve: to carry out with success p. 84-85

66 Sum It Up What is the difference between a direct democracy and a representative democracy? In a direct democracy, individuals have a direct voice in their government. In a representative democracy, individuals elect people to make decisions on their behalf. p. 85

67 Chapter 4, Section 4 The Age of Pericles: Daily Life in Athens (Pages 142–144) Questioning Skip People To Meet Aspasia: well-educated woman in Athens who shaped the ideas of Plato and was consulted by Athenian leaders Academic Vocabulary economy: a system of producing and managing wealth philosophy: a system or group of thoughts or beliefs p. 85-86

68 Chapter 4, Section 4 The Age of Pericles: The Athenian Empire (Pages 139–140) Sum It Up How did Athenian men and women spend their time? Men worked in the morning, then exercised or attended meetings of the assembly. Upper class men enjoyed all-male gatherings in the evenings. Women took care of household duties and rarely went out. They could leave the house only with a male relative. Women had no political rights. Poor women might also work. p. 85

69 Chapter 4, Section 4 The Age of Pericles: The Peloponnesian War (pages 144–146) Predicting Skip Academic Vocabulary framework: structure for supporting something else cooperate: to work together toward a common goal Terms To Review Colony (Ch. 4): Each colony in America was originally part of England. p. 87

70 Sum It Up What effects did the Peloponnesian War have on Greece? The Spartans tore down the Athenian empire in their victory. The long war weakened all the major Greek city-states. Many were dead and left without farms or jobs, and the Greeks could no longer unite to fight together. p. 88

71 Chapter 4, Section 4 The Age of Pericles (Pages 138–146) Section Wrap Up How did Athens change under the rule of Pericles? Athens dominated the Delian League. The government became more democratic. Culture blossomed. Artists, architects, writers, and philosophers were supported. p. 88

72 Chapter 4, Section 4 The Age of Pericles (Pages 138–146) Section Wrap Up What happened when Sparta and Athens went to war for control of Greece? Ultimately, all of Greece was weakened by the long war. The Spartans surrounded Athens for more than 25 years. Many died, lost farms, and lost jobs. Ultimately the victors, the Spartans destroyed the Athenian empire. But the city-states rebelled against Spartan control. p. 88


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