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Chapter Objectives Describe how geography and the Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations influenced Greek culture. Compare the city-states of Sparta and Athens.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter Objectives Describe how geography and the Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations influenced Greek culture. Compare the city-states of Sparta and Athens."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Chapter Objectives Describe how geography and the Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations influenced Greek culture. Compare the city-states of Sparta and Athens. Identify the causes and effects of Greek wars with Persia. Describe Athens under the leadership of Pericles and reasons Athens declined. The Ancient Greeks

3 The Geography of Greece Mainland Greece is a mountainous peninsula—a body of land with water on three sides. The Ionian Sea is to the west of Greece, the Aegean Sea is to the east, and the Mediterranean Sea is to the south. Ancient Greeks were fishers, sailors, traders, and farmers. (page 117) The Early Greeks

4 The Geography of Greece Although Greece’s rocky soil made it difficult to farm, people could grow wheat, barley, olives, and grapes in the favorable climate. (page 117) The Early Greeks

5 The Minoans The ruins of the Minoan civilization, the first civilization to arise in Greece, are on the island of Crete. Artifacts at the palace at Knossos reveal the riches of the Minoan people, such as wine, oil, jewelry, and statues. The Minoan people were traders, traveling by ship to trade with other countries. (page 118) The Early Greeks

6 The First Greek Kingdoms The first Greek kings were Mycenaean leaders, whose people invaded the Greek mainland around 1900 B.C. (pages 119–120) The center of the Mycenaean kingdom was a palace surrounded by large farms. The Mycenaeans began trading with the Minoans and learned much about Minoan culture. The Early Greeks

7 The First Greek Kingdoms (cont.) Before collapsing around 1100 B.C., the Mycenaean civilization was the most powerful on the Mediterranean. The Dark Age occurred between 1100 B.C. and 150 B.C. and was a time of less trade and poverty among people. The Dorians invaded Greece, bringing new weapons and farming technology to the Greek people. The Early Greeks (pages 119–120)

8 The First Greek Kingdoms (cont.) The Greeks learned about an alphabet from the Phoenicians, one of their trading partners. The Greek alphabet had 24 letters that stood for different sounds. The Early Greeks (pages 119–120)

9 A Move to Colonize After the Dark Age, Greek people began to set up colonies in other countries. (page 121) This colonization spread Greek culture. Trade between colonists and the parent cities grew, and soon merchants were trading goods for money instead of more goods. The Early Greeks

10 The Polis A polis, or city-state, was like an independent country. (pages 122–123) City-states varied in size and population. An acropolis, located at the top of a hill, was the main gathering place of the city- state. An agora, or open area, served as a market and as a place for people to meet and debate issues. The Early Greeks

11 The Polis (cont.) The Greeks were the first people to develop the idea of citizenship, in which citizens of a country are treated equally and have rights and responsibilities. In Greek city-states, only free, native- born, land-owning men could be citizens. Citizens could vote, hold office, own property, and defend themselves in court. The Early Greeks (pages 122–123)

12 The Polis (cont.) The military of the city-states was made of ordinary citizens, not nobles. These citizens were called hoplites and fought each battle on foot instead of on horses. The Early Greeks (pages 122–123)

13 Get Ready to Read (cont.) Focusing on the Main Ideas Sparta and Athens The Spartans focused on military skills to control the people they conquered. Tyrants were able to seize power from the nobles with the support of Greek farmers, merchants, and artisans. Unlike Spartans, Athenians were more interested in building a democracy than building a military force.

14 Tyranny in the City-States Nobles, who owned large farms, seized power from the Greek kings. Farmers had to borrow money from nobles and often could not pay back the debt. The farmers lost their land and had to work for the nobles or were sold into slavery. Nobles, who owned large farms, seized power from the Greek kings. (pages 125–126) Sparta and Athens

15 Tyranny in the City-States (cont.) This unhappiness led to the rise of tyrants, or people who take power by force and rule with total authority. Tyrants overthrew the nobles during the 600s B.C. Unhappy farmers demanded changes in the power structure of the city-states. Sparta and Athens (pages 125–126)

16 Tyranny in the City-States (cont.) The Greek people eventually tired of the tyrants and created oligarchies or democracies. An oligarchy is a form of government in which a few people hold power. Tyrants maintained their popularity by building marketplaces, temples, and walls. Sparta and Athens (pages 125–126)

17 Tyranny in the City-States (cont.) Sparta was an oligarchy; Athens was a democracy. A democracy is a form of government in which all citizens share power. Sparta and Athens (pages 125–126)

18 Sparta To keep the helots from rebelling, the Spartans created a strong military of boys and men. To obtain more land, Spartans conquered and enslaved their neighbors, calling them helots. (pages 126–127) Boys entered the military at age seven. At age 20, men entered the regular army and lived in the barracks for 10 years. Sparta and Athens

19 Sparta (cont.) They returned home at age 30 but served in the army until age 60. Spartan girls were trained in sports to become healthy mothers and were freer than other Greek women. The Spartan government was an oligarchy containing two branches, a council of elders, and an assembly. Sparta and Athens (pages 126–127)

20 Athens Boys in Athens attended school to learn reading, writing, and arithmetic. (pages 128–130) Athenian girls learned household duties from their mothers. Some wealthy girls learned reading, writing, and playing the lyre. The government of early Athens was an oligarchy. Sparta and Athens

21 Athens (cont.) A noble named Solon reformed the Athenian government in 594 B.C. The tyrant Peisistratus seized power 30 years after Solon’s reforms. Cleisthenes took power in 508 B.C. He created a democracy in Athens. Cleisthenes gave the assembly more power. Sparta and Athens (pages 128–130)

22 Athens (cont.) He also created a new council to help the assembly carry out its duties. Members of the council were chosen by lottery. Sparta and Athens (pages 128–130)

23 Get Ready to Read (cont.) Focusing on the Main Ideas Persia Attacks the Greeks The Persian Empire united a wide area under a single government. Both Sparta and Athens played roles in defeating the Persians.

24 The Persian Empire Persians were warriors and nomads who lived in Persia, the southwestern area of what is today Iran. Cyrus the Great united the Persians. The Persians built a large empire, conquering Mesopotamia, Asia Minor, Syria, Canaan, and Phoenician cities. (pages 132–133) Persia Attacks the Greeks

25 The Persian Empire (cont.) The empire under Darius was divided into satrapies, each with a ruler known as a satrap. The satraps answered to the king. Darius came to power in 521 B.C. and reorganized the government. Persia Attacks the Greeks (pages 132–133)

26 The Persian Empire (cont.) Zoroastrianism, the religion of Persia, was founded by Zoroaster, who believed in one god, the freedom of humans, and the triumph of good. The military of Persia consisted of full- time, paid soldiers known as Immortals. Persia Attacks the Greeks (pages 132–133)

27 The Persian Wars The Battle of Marathon occurred in 490 B.C. on the plain of Marathon, a short distance from Athens. After a failed rebellion by the Greeks, King Darius decided to stop the Greeks from interfering in his empire. (pages 134–137) The Persians waited there for the Athenians. Persia Attacks the Greeks

28 The Persian Wars (cont.) When the horsemen were on the boat, the Greeks charged the Persian foot soldiers and defeated them. When they did not come, the Persian commander ordered the troops back on the boat. After Darius’s death, his son Xerxes became king. He vowed a new invasion of Greece. Persia Attacks the Greeks (pages 134–137)

29 The Persian Wars (cont.) The Greeks fought the Persians at Thermopylae for two days. Athens and Sparta joined forces to defend against Xerxes’s attack. The Greeks lost the battle, but 200 ships were assembled in Athens. Persia Attacks the Greeks (pages 134–137)

30 The Persian Wars (cont.) At the Battle of Salamis, the Greeks used their faster, smaller ships to defeat the Persian fleet. Persia Attacks the Greeks (pages 134–137)

31 The Persian Wars (cont.) The Greek army won at Plataea. The Persians entered Athens and burned the city. This was the turning point of the wars with Persia. The Persian Empire fell for several reasons. Persia Attacks the Greeks (pages 134–137)

32 The Persian Wars (cont.) The Persians were weakened by war, and their rulers taxed the people and spent the money lavishly. The sons of kings had little power, so they killed rulers to get power. Persia Attacks the Greeks (pages 134–137)

33 Get Ready to Read (cont.) Focusing on the Main Ideas The Age of Pericles Under Pericles, Athens became very powerful and more democratic. Athenian men and women had very different roles. Sparta and Athens went to war for control of Greece.

34 The Athenian Empire Athens joined forces with other city- states to form the Delian League. (pages 139–140) The Delian League promised to defend its members against the Persians. Athens eventually gained control of the Delian League. The Athenians moved the Delian League from Delos to Athens. The Age of Pericles

35 The Athenian Empire (cont.) Athens had a direct democracy. In a direct democracy, people vote firsthand on laws and policies. Direct democracy worked because of the small number of Athenian citizens. In a representative democracy, people select smaller groups to vote on behalf of the people. The Age of Pericles (pages 139–140)

36 The Athenian Empire (cont.) A general named Pericles led Athens for more than 30 years. He promoted democracy by including more people in the government. The age of Pericles was a time of creativity and learning. Pericles built temples and statues in the city after the destruction of the Persian Wars. The Age of Pericles (pages 139–140)

37 The Athenian Empire (cont.) He also supported artists, writers, architects, and philosophers. Philosophers are people who ponder questions about life. The Age of Pericles (pages 139–140)

38 Daily Life in Athens In the 400s B.C., the population of Athens was about 285,000. (pages 142–144) This made Athens the largest of all Greek city-states. Most Athenian homes had at least one slave, and wealthy families had many slaves. The Age of Pericles

39 Daily Life in Athens (cont.) The Age of Pericles (pages 142–144)

40 Daily Life in Athens (cont.) Athenian farmers grew grain, vegetables, fruit, olives, and grapes. Because there was little farmland, Athens had to import grain from other places. Herders raised sheep and goats for wool, milk, and cheese. Athens became the trading center of the Greek world. The Age of Pericles (pages 142–144)

41 Daily Life in Athens (cont.) Merchants traded pottery, jewelry, leather goods, and other products. Athenian men worked in the morning and exercised or attended assembly meetings in the evening. Athenian women were responsible for caring for their children and their households. Poor women might work in the fields or sell goods. The Age of Pericles (pages 142–144)

42 Daily Life in Athens (cont.) Athenian women had no political rights and could not own property. Aspasia was a well-educated woman who influenced Plato and Pericles. Although she could not vote or hold office, she was influential in politics. The Age of Pericles (pages 142–144)

43 The Peloponnesian War Other city-states along with Sparta became suspicious of Athens. (pages 144–146) These city-states joined together against Athens. The war that broke out is known as the Peloponnesian War. Pericles’s funeral oration reminded Athenians about democracy and gave them courage to continue fighting. The Age of Pericles

44 The Peloponnesian War (cont.) Athenians outside the city walls moved inside the city to protect themselves. In the second year of the war, a disease killed more than one-third of the people inside Athens’ walls, including Pericles. Sparta made a deal with the Athenians and built a navy. The Age of Pericles (pages 144–146)

45 The Peloponnesian War (cont.) The Spartan navy defeated the Athenian navy, which brought supplies to the Athenians. Athens then surrendered. The Age of Pericles (pages 144–146)

46 Section 1: The Early Greeks Focusing on the Main Ideas The geography of Greece influenced where people settled and what they did. The Minoans earned their living by building ships and trading. Mycenaeans built the first Greek kingdoms and spread their power across the Mediterranean region. The Ancient Greeks

47 Section 1: The Early Greeks Focusing on the Main Ideas Colonies and trade spread Greek culture and spurred industry. The idea of citizenship developed in Greek city-states. The Ancient Greeks

48 Section 2: Sparta and Athens Focusing on the Main Ideas Tyrants were able to seize power from the nobles with the support of Greek farmers, merchants, and artisans. The Spartans focused on military skills to control the people they conquered. Unlike Spartans, Athenians were more interested in building a democracy than building a military force. The Ancient Greeks

49 Focusing on the Main Ideas The Persian Empire united a wide area under a single government. Both Sparta and Athens played roles in defeating the Persians. Section 3: Persia Attacks the Greeks The Ancient Greeks

50 Under Pericles, Athens became very powerful and more democratic. Athenian men and women had very different roles. Section 4: The Age of Pericles Focusing on the Main Ideas Sparta and Athens went to war for control of Greece. The Ancient Greeks

51 __ 1.In a(n) ___, a few wealthy people hold power. __ 2.The Greek mainland is a(n) ___, a body of land with water on three sides. __ 3.In a(n) ___, people at mass meetings make decisions for the government. Review Vocabulary A.satrap B.agora C.democracy D.direct democracy E.oligarchy F.peninsula F D Define Match the vocabulary word that completes each sentence. E The Ancient Greeks

52 __ 4. A(n) ___, acted as tax collector, judge, chief of police, and army recruiter. __ 5. In a(n) ___, all citizens share in running the government. __ 6.Below the acropolis was an open area called an(n) ___. Review Vocabulary A.satrap B.agora C.democracy D.direct democracy E.oligarchy F.peninsula B Define Match the vocabulary word that completes each sentence. C The Ancient Greeks A

53 Section 1 The Early Greeks How did the geography of Greece influence where people settled and how they made a living? The rocky mountains caused people to settle by the seacoast and become fishers, sailors, and traders. The Ancient Greeks Review Main Ideas

54 How did the Greek colonies help industry to grow? They promoted trade, industry, and specialized goods. The Ancient Greeks Section 1 The Early Greeks Review Main Ideas

55 Section 2 Sparta and Athens Why were tyrants able to seize control from Greek nobles? They had the support of the common people, many of whom were hoplites. The Ancient Greeks Review Main Ideas

56 Describe the differences between Athens and Sparta. Sparta emphasized the military and strict living, while Athens focused on democracy and culture. The Ancient Greeks Section 2 Sparta and Athens Review Main Ideas

57 Why did Sparta and Athens unite during the Persian Wars? They feared Persian conquest of Greece. The Ancient Greeks Section 3 Persia Attacks the Greeks Review Main Ideas

58 Section 4 The Age of Pericles How was democracy expanded during the Age of Pericles? Pericles involved more people in government and paid officeholders so poorer citizens could serve. The Ancient Greeks Review Main Ideas

59 The Ancient Greeks What was the result of the Peloponnesian War? Athens declined. Greece grew weaker, opening it to conquest. Section 4 The Age of Pericles Review Main Ideas

60 Cause and Effect How did the geography of Greece help to encourage trade? The Greek peninsula gave the Greeks easy access to sea routes all over the Mediterranean. The Ancient Greeks

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