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Dollard and Miller Chapter 10 Psychoanalytic Learning Theory.

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1 Dollard and Miller Chapter 10 Psychoanalytic Learning Theory

2 Hull’s Theory of Learning Drive – any strong impulse that moves an organism to action Reinforcer – anything that reduces a drive Habit – association b/t stimulus and response (S-R learning)

3 Dollard & Miller’s Theory of Learning Drive Cue Response Reinforcement

4 Response Hierarchies Habit family hierarchy  Innate hierarchy of responses  Dominant response Learning  Initial hierarchy of responses  Resultant hierarchy of responses

5 Example of a response hierarchy: child R 1 : cry R 2 : grab teddy bear R 3 : hide R 4 : demand Daddy R 5 : go quietly to bed

6 gradient of reward The more closely the response is followed by reward, the more it is strengthened. Language can influence this by making a response "close" by talking about it.

7 Bandura (1925- ) & Mischel (1930- )

8 Consistency of Human Behavior Mischel’s Peace Corps study  Personality Coefficient Weak correlation (.30) between standard personality tests and behavior Consistency Paradox  The persistent belief that human behavior is consistent over time and situation when experimental evidence indicates that it is not  In fact, Mischel believes consistency is maladaptive

9 The Situational Context of Behavior Variables affecting personality  Person variables – personal traits that influence response to a situation  Situation variables – environmental circumstances person finds themselves in Traditional theory overemphasizes Person Variables Skinner overemphasizes Situation Variables

10 The Situational Context of Behavior Reciprocal Determinism  Personality emerges from the mutual interactions of individuals, their actions, and their environments.

11 Imagine combinations of these behaviors: hit cry smile With any of these situations:... when pushed.... when teased.... when complimented.

12 It makes sense to “hit back when pushed.” It does not make sense to “cry when complimented.”

13 Person Variables Beliefs, values, and information gathering strategies that determine which stimuli are perceived, selected, interpreted, and used

14 1. Encoding Strategies “How we see things”  personal constructs - trait terms people use to describe themselves and other people Ex. passionate, hard-working  situational descriptions – how situation is interpreted helps explain why people have different reactions to same situation

15 2. Expectancies “What we think will happen”  Behavior-Outcome Expectancies  Stimulus-Outcome Expectancies  Self-Efficacy Expectancies

16 Behavior-Outcome Expectancies If I act in this way, it will have the following result. If I study 3 hours, will I get an A ? If I run, will I catch the bus? Used when specifics about current situation unknown, based on past, similar experiences

17 Stimulus-Outcome Expectancies What will happen next? Learned from past experiences

18 I know what to expect from this stimulus!

19 Self-Efficacy Expectancies Can I do it? Self-efficacy – what a person can do Perceived self- efficacy – what a person thinks they are capable of doing

20 Self-Efficacy Expectancies Strong emotion – low self-efficacy Calmness – high self-efficacy People w/ high self-efficacy  Set higher goals  Persist longer  More venturesome  Recover more quickly from set-backs  Have less fear, anxiety, stress & depression

21 3. Subjective values (of outcome) “What is worth having or doing?” desirability of outcomes (given the particular individual’s goals or values)

22 4. Self-regulatory systems and plans “How do we attain our goals?”

23 Self-Regulated Behavior Most behavior is self-regulated Performance Standards:  When performance meets standards, person feels good  When performance does not meet standards, person feels bad  Intrinsic vs. extrinsic reinforcement/punishment I.e., most behavior is purposive or teleological

24 Self-Regulated Behavior  Self-Efficacy as a mediator of performance  Moral Conduct as a regulator of performance  Self-Exonerating Mechanisms excuse violations of moral standards

25 Self-Exonerating Mechanisms Moral justification Euphemistic labeling Advantageous comparison Displacement of responsibility Diffusion of responsibility Disregard or distortion of consequences Dehumanization Attribution of blame

26 Delay of Gratification

27 5. Competencies “What we are capable of doing?” behavioral cognitive

28 Examples Sexual gender identity Knowing structure of the physical world Social rules and conventions Personal constructs about self, others Rehearsal strategies for learning

29 Five Person Variables 1. Encoding strategies 2. Expectancies 3. Subjective values 4. Self-regulatory systems & plans 5. Competencies

30 Experiment nursery school students would behave more aggressively when they observed an aggressive adult

31 Observational Learning Learning that takes place when one observes and models the behavior of others Models as sources of vicarious reinforcement and vicarious punishment  News and Entertainment Media as Models

32 Elements Necessary for Modeling Attention  One must pay attention to a behavior and its consequences Retention  One must recall what was observed Reproduction  Observers must have the motor ability to reproduce the modeled behavior Motivation  Observer must expect reinforcement for modeled act

33 Dysfunctional Expectancies and Psychotherapy Psychological problems result from dysfunctional expectancies  Thinking you can do more than you can  frustration  Believing you can do less than you can  inhibits personal growth Goal of Psychotherapy: Change perceived self-efficacy

34 Social Cognitive Theory View of Human Nature Freedom versus Determinism  Bandura as a “soft-determinist”  Freedom as options Chance Encounters and Life Paths Mind-Body Relationship  Social Cognitive Theory does not accept dualism

35 Critique Contributions

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