History Born in 1925 on a farm near a small town in rural Alberta Canada (second generation theorist) Trained as a clinical psychologist scientist-practitioner model research base for clinical practice Went almost immediately to Stanford and launched his research..
Context for Theory Development Early funding for research on childhood and adolescent aggression Results of research yielded theory of vicarious learning or modeling which led beyond the traditional limits of operant or respondent conditioning into aspects of cognition..
Reciprocal Determinism People do not simply react to environmental events, but also actively create their environments and act to change them. Dramatic departure from Radical Behaviorism Behavior: overt and covert events Person: cognitive processes Environment (stimuli are only reinforcing if we think they are)..
Inclusion of Cognitive- Perceptual Processes Rigorous research base for cognitive variables (not mentalism) Processes in modeling (vicarious learning) Attention Retention Behavioral production Motivation..
Self System Not an autonomous psychic entity “refers to cognitive structures that provide reference mechanisms and to a set of subfunctions for the perception, evaluation, and regulation of our behavior”..
Self-Efficacy Situation oriented belief in the ability to produce desired behavior Not necessarily generalized to all situations Influenced by experiences, modeling, persuasion and emotional states In relation to environmental conditions efficacy may lead to specific outcomes, e.g. depression Other forms of efficacy: Proxy agency, Collective Efficacy Strong research support..
Self-regulation Belief in one’s ability to control one’s own behavior External self-regulation mechanisms Sources: parents, teachers, peers Extrinsic reinforcement Internal self-regulation mechanisms: Self-observation Judgment processes Standards Attribution Self-reaction: self-mediated consequences..
Chance Encounters Added explanations for the unpredictability of behavior Woven into the B-P-E reciprocal determinism theory Chance encounters--persons Fortuitous events--environmental events
Psychopathology and Psychotherapy Faulty learning Vicarious sensitization Vicarious desensitization stimulus hierarchy models graduated presentation Assertiveness (social skills) training model behavioral rehearsal feedback..