Presentation on theme: "Chapter 2 Ancient Egypt Section 1: The Nile Valley."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 2 Ancient Egypt Section 1: The Nile Valley
Settling the Nile Between 6000 B.C. and 5000 B.C., hunters and gatherers moved into the green Nile River Valley from less fertile areas of Africa and Southwest Asia. These people are the earliest Egyptians.
A Mighty River Egypt was warm & sunny, but received little rainfall. For water, the Egyptians had to rely on the Nile River.
A Mighty River The Nile is the worlds longest river, flowing north from the heart of Africa to the Mediterranean Sea. It is 4,000 miles long. Ships can only use the last 650 miles of the Nile because of the cataracts.
On both sides of the Nile there are deserts as far as the eye can see. On the west is the Sahara, the largest desert in the world. The ancients called the deserts the Red Land because of their burning heat.
Egypts geographic features help protect them from invasions: –Deserts on both sides –Niles cataracts on the South –Niles delta marshes offered no harbors
A Sheltered Land Egypt rarely faced threats of invasion, therefore, it was able to grow and prosper. They were isolated, but not entirely closed off. The Mediterranean & Red Sea allowed the Egyptians to trade with other people.
A Sheltered Land People used the Nile for trade and transportation. Egyptians villages had frequent, friendly contact with one another, unlike the Mesopotamians.
The River People – Regular Flooding Like the Mesopotamians, the Egyptians had to cope with floods. They did not have to worry about sudden overflows. In the spring each year, the Nile would spill over its banks.
The River People – Regular Flooding When the waters went down, they left behind a layer of dark, fertile mud. Because of these deposits, the Egyptians called their land Kemet, the Black Land.
How did the Egyptians use the Nile? The Egyptians took advantage of the Niles floods to become successful farmers. One reason for their success was their wide use of irrigation.
How did the Egyptians use the Nile? The farmers dug basins in the earth to trap the floodwaters. Then they dug canals to carry water from the basins to the fields beyond the rivers reach.
At first they used papyrus to make baskets, sandals, and river rafts. Later, they used it for papermaking.
How did the Egyptians use the Nile? The first step was to cut the stalks of the plant into narrow strips. Then they soaked the strips and pounded them flat. Left in the air to dry, the strips became stiff. They could then be joined to form a roll of paper.
What Were Hieroglyphics? The Egyptians used their papyrus rolls for writing paper. They developed their own system of writing called hieroglyphics.
What Were Hieroglyphics? Their hieroglyphics were made up of hundreds of picture symbols. Some symbols stood for ideas or objects.
Scribes did carve hieroglyphics onto stone walls & monuments. For everyday purposes they invented a simpler script & wrote on papyrus.
What Were Hieroglyphics? In ancient Egypt, few people could read & write. The men could go to special schools to study reading & writing & learn how to become scribes. Scribes kept records & worked for the rulers, priests & traders.
A United Egypt Surpluses of food freed people to become artisans instead of farmers as in Mesopotamia. The wove cloth, made pottery, carved statues or shaped copper into weapons & tools.
A United Egypt As more goods became available, Egyptians traded with other cultures. Here they may have picked up ideas about writing and government.
The Rise of Government The advances in farming, craft & trade created a need for government. Disputes over land ownership had to be settled. The earliest rulers were village chiefs.
The Rise of Government Over time, a few strong chiefs would unite groups of villages into small kingdoms. The strongest of these kingdoms eventually over-powered the weaker ones.
By 4,000 B.C., Egypt was made up of two large kingdoms. In the Nile delta there was Lower Egypt. To the south, lay Upper Egypt.
Egypts Ruling Families About 3100 B.C., the two kingdoms became one. Credit for this goes to Narmer, also known as Menes. As king of Upper Egypt, he led his armies north and took control of Lower Egypt.
Narmer ruled from Memphis, a city that he built. His kingdom held together long after his death – family members passed the ruling power from father to son to grandson.
Egypts Ruling Families Ancient Egypt would be ruled by 31 dynasties which lasted about 2,800 years. Historians group Egypts dynasties into 3 main time periods called kingdoms: –Old Kingdom – earliest period –Middle Kingdom –New Kingdom
Early Egyptian Life Pharoah Priests & Nobles Traders, Artisans, shopkeepers, and scribes Farmers & Herders Unskilled workers
Family Life Father was head of the family. Egyptian women had more rights than other females in other civilizations. –Could own property, buy & sell goods –Upper-class women were in charge of temples and could perform religious ceremonies
Family Life Few families sent their children to school. Mothers taught daughters to cook, sew and run a home. Boys learned trades from their fathers.