Presentation on theme: "Chapter 15: The Civil War Begins Section 1 – Texas Secession"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 15: The Civil War Begins Section 1 – Texas Secession The secession of Southern states cause the North and the South to take up arms. Texas becomes one of the early states to secede from the Union and join the Confederacy.Which side had the advantage in the Civil War?
2 North vs. South in 1861 South North Advantages ? Disadvantages On a sheet of paper, draw the chart below. After studying the few slides that follow, write in your responses and complete the chart.NorthSouthAdvantages?Disadvantages
9 The Civil War (1861-1865) Through Maps, Charts, Graphs & Pictures Susan M. Pojer Horace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY
10 Many Issues Divide the Country 1861 – Texas joined 10 other states to secede from the Union and form the Confederate States of America (CSA).This action followed years of long-standing differences between the North and the South.
11 What Issues did the North & South Disagree On? Tariffs – taxes on imported goodsDistribution of public landsStates’ Rights – states should have more power over what they do and the federal government should have less power over them.Most of all – the issue of SLAVERY
12 Comparing the Views of the North and the South Draw a chart as follows. Use the information on the next slides to complete the chart.IssueUnionConfederacyTariffsStates’ RightsSlavery
13 The Republican Party Opposes Slavery Many Northerners who opposed slavery joined the Republican Party.Abolitionists – wanted to end ALL slavery.However, not all Northern whites agreed. The majority of Northern whites were prejudiced against African Americans (free/slave).BUT…the majority of Northern whites did NOT want slavery to spread westward into new territories.
14 A Northern/Republican’s View: Many Northern business leaders and farmers believed that the Southern Democrats were responsible for an economic depression (similar to the Great Depression) of the late 1850s could be brought back by tariffs, a homestead act, and other internal improvements.
15 Tariffs Republicans/Northerners believed: Would boost the economy and bring in much needed money to businesses and farmers.
16 States’ Rights Republicans/Northerners believed: The federal system (under which the U.S. government was formed) allowed for the sharing of powers between the federal government and state governments.States should NOT have more powers than they were given in the original U.S. constitution.States had NO RIGHT to secede from the Union.
17 A Southern/Democrat’s View: Opposed to ALL of the North’s ideas because they believed the ideas would ONLY benefit the North – not the South.Believed thatvictory for theRepublican Partywould mean theend of slaveryand theSouthern way of life.
18 States’ Rights[Southern] states are sovereign, meaning they had entered the Union voluntarily and they should be able to leave it voluntarily as they see fit.
19 TariffsAs sovereign states, they [Southern states] had the sole authority to set or void tariffs as they saw fit.
20 Southern States Vow to Secede During the 1860 presidential election, Southern leaders threatened to secede if a Republican (Abraham Lincoln) was elected.After Lincoln won the 1860 election, 6 states seceded: South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, and Louisiana.Texans call on Governor Sam Houston to organize a convention to consider secession also.
21 The Convention Votes on Secession Sam Houston OPPOSED secession.Houston did not believe that the South could win a war against the North.He hoped that Texans would rally against a convention and declare such a convention illegal.Houston refused to call a special session of the legislature and Texans organized a convention and elected delegates to attend - all without Houston’s approval.
22 Texas Secession Convention Met in Austin on January 28, 1861.Adopted a decree called the “Ordinance of Secession.”Ordinance declared that the U.S. government had abused its power in order to “strike down the interest and prosperity of the people of Texas” …”her citizens are freed from all allegiance to the U.S.”On February 23, 1861, Texas approved secession from the Union and became the 7th state to secede from the Union and join the Confederacy.
23 The Confederacy is Formed Formed at a convention in Montgomery, Alabama on February 4, 1861.Called the Confederate States of America (CSA).
24 Confederate Constitution Drew up a constitution similar to the U.S. constitution, but with some important differences:1. states were given MORE power and the federal government was given LESS power;2. this constitution guaranteed the protection of slavery.
28 Texas Approves the Confederate Constitution Texas quickly approved the Confederate constitution.They prepared a Texas Constitution of 1861.This constitution replaced references to the “U.S. constitution” with “Confederate constitution.”
29 Houston Removed from Office Texas Secession Convention ordered all state government leaders to take an oath of loyalty to the Confederacy – Houston refused and is removed as Governor.Lt. Governor Edward Clark replaced Houston as Governor (he took the oath)This ends Houston’s career in politics and military – he retires to home in Huntsville and dies in 1863.
30 Lincoln’s View on States’ Secession Lincoln said that the Union was “perpetual” (continuing forever) and the Southern states had no right to leave it.He promised to carry out the law of the land (according to the U.S. constitution) in all states, andVowed to preserve the nation at all costs.
31 This is the beginning of the Civil War! The War BeginsIt starts at Fort Sumter, SC:Confederate soldiers take over Fort SumterFort Sumter— a Union outpost in the Charleston harborConfederates demand surrender of Fort SumterFirst ShotsLincoln does not reinforce or evacuate, just sends foodFor South, no action would damage sovereignty of ConfederacyJefferson Davis chooses to turn peaceful secession into warOrders Confederate soldiers to fire on Sumter April 12, 1861This is the beginning of the Civil War!
38 Confederates Fire on Fort Sumter The Confederacy Takes ControlConfederate soldiers take over government, military installationsFort Sumter—Union outpost in Charleston harborConfederates demand surrender of Fort SumterLincoln’s DilemmaReinforcing fort by force would lead rest of slave states to secedeEvacuating fort would legitimize Confederacy, endangering the Union
39 Confederates Fire on Fort Sumter First ShotsLincoln does not reinforce or evacuate, just sends foodFor South, no action would damage sovereignty of ConfederacyJefferson Davis chooses to turn peaceful secession into warfires on Sumter April 12, 1861Begins the Civil War
40 Confederates Fire on Fort Sumter Virginia SecedesFall of Fort Sumter unites North; volunteers rush to enlistVirginia unwilling to fight the South; secedes from UnionThis is very important, because Virginia is the most populated state in the South, and Robert E. Lee is from Virginiaantislavery western counties secede from VA, creating the state of West VirginiaThree more states secede; border states remain in UnionBorder states are very important.Lincoln will have to make political decisions that will not agitate the border states.
41 Americans Expect a Short War Union and Confederate StrategiesUnion advantages: soldiers, factories, food, and railroadsConfederate advantages: cotton profits, generals, motivationAnaconda plan: Union strategy to conquer Southblockade Southern portsdivide Confederacy in two in westcapture Richmond, Confederate capitalConfederate strategy: defense, invade North if opportunity arises
42 Overview of the North’s Civil War Strategy: “Anaconda” Plan
44 Americans Expect a Short War Bull RunBull Run—first battle, near Washington, D.C.; Confederate victoryThis battle shows both sides that the war will not be short.Thomas J. Jackson called Stonewall Jackson for firm stand in battle
45 Union Armies in the West Protecting Washington, D.C.After Bull Run, Lincoln calls for 1 million additional soldiersAppoints General George McClellan to lead Army of the PotomacForts Henry and DonelsonGeneral Ulysses S. Grant—brave, tough, decisive commander in WestFeb. 1862, Grant captures Confederate Forts Henry, Donelson
46 Union Armies in the West ShilohMarch 1862, Confederate troops surprise Union soldiers at Shiloh Grant counterattacks; Confederates retreat; thousands dead, woundedShiloh teaches preparation needed, Confederacy vulnerable in WestFarragut on the Lower MississippiDavid G. Farragut commands fleet that takes New Orleans, April 1862Why is New Orleans an important victory for the Northtakes Baton Rouge, Natchez
47 Pretend that you have been given the task of setting the odds of winning or losing the Civil War. Look at the advantages and disadvantages for both sides and make a prediction and explain your prediction
48 The War for the Capitals “On to Richmond”McClellan waits to attack Richmond; drills troops for 5 months [Visual]Spring 1862, Robert E. Lee takes command of Southern armyLee, McClellan fight Seven Days’ Battle; Union leaves Richmond areaLee shows the advantage of military leadership for the Confederacy.The confederacy in the east is very successful, even though they are outnumber, and outmatched
49 The War for the Capitals AntietamLee wins the Second Battle of Bull Run; marches into Maryland !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!Lee, McClellan clash at Antietam—bloodiest single-day battle in American History!!!!!!!Battle a standoff; Confederates retreat; McClellan does not pursueLincoln fires McClellan
50 Soldiers Suffer on Both Sides Lives on the LinesLack of sanitation, personal hygiene lead to disease in campSoldiers only required to wash their hands and face once a day, and bath once a week.Diets are unvaried, limited, unappealing
51 A Revolution in Warfare Ironclads – What is an Ironclad?New ironclad ships instrumental in victories of Grant, FarragutIronclads splinter wooden ships, withstand cannon, resist burningMarch 1862, North’s Monitor, South’s Merrimack fight to a drawNew WeaponsRifles more accurate, faster loading, fire more rounds than musketsMinié ball (more destructive bullet), grenades, land mines are usedFighting from trenches, barricades new advantage in infantry attacks
53 African Americans Fight for Freedom Slave Resistance in the ConfederacySlaves seek freedom behind Union army linesOn plantations, destroy property, refuse to leave with fleeing owners
54 Both Sides Face Political Problems ConscriptionCasualties, desertions lead to conscription—draft to serve in armyBoth armies allow draftees to hire substitutes to serve for themPlanters with more than 20 slaves exempted90% eligible Southerners serve; 92% Northern soldiers volunteerDraft RiotsWhite workers fear Southern blacks will come North, compete for jobsAngry at having to free slaves, mobs rampage through New York CityAlso rioted because the rich did not have to fight. (Substitutes)
55 Britain Remains Neutral Britain Pursues Its Own InterestsBritain has cotton inventory, new sources; does not need SouthNeeds Northern wheat, corn; chooses neutralityThe Trent AffairConfederate diplomats travel on Trent to get British, French supportU.S. Navy arrests them; Lincoln frees them, averts war with BritainAlmost brings Britain into the war.
56 African Americans Fight for Freedom African-American Soldiers African Americans 1% of North’s population, by war’s end 10% of armyLower pay than white troops for most of war; limits on military rankWill eventually receive equal pay.High mortality from disease; POWs killed or returned to slaveryFort Pillow, TN—Confederates massacre over 200 African-American POWsWhy?!!!!!!!!
57 The Peace Movement: Copperheads Clement Vallandigham
59 Battle of Antietam “Bloodiest Single Day of the War” September 17, 186223,000 casualties
60 for better and for worse… The Year is 1863…The Civil War is progressing…The fighting is intense and the death toll is climbing…Events are unfolding quickly now…these events will forever change the nation…for better and for worse…
63 Emancipation Proclamation By issuing the Emancipation Proclamation, President Lincoln makes slavery the focus of the war.Terms of the Proclamation:1) frees slaves in the Confederate states2) does NOT apply to areas occupied by the Union or stateswhere slavery is permitted in the Union – (such as the borderstates of Missouri and Kentucky)Discourages Britain from supporting/joining the Confederacy(audio clips of freed slaves)
64 Proclaiming Emancipation Lincoln’s View of SlaveryFederal government has no power to abolish slaverywhere it exists2) Lincoln decides slaves who labor for Confederacy (southern states) CAN BE FREEDThe Proclamation brings mixed reactions…
66 Some Reactions: gives war a higher moral purpose Free blacks can now join Union army and fight against slaveryNorthern Democrats claim it will antagonize the South and prolong the warConfederacy now MORE DETERMINED to fight to keep slaveryNo chance of compromise now-one side must Win and the other side must LOSE!
67 Both Sides Face Political Problems Dealing with DissentLincoln suspends habeas corpus:order to bring accused to court, explain charges(Copperheads – anti-war N Democrats among those arrested)Seizes telegraph offices to prevent subversionDavis denounces Lincoln’s action and then suspends habeas corpus in South alsoLincoln’s action in dramatically expanding presidential powers to meet a crisis in wartime “emergency powers” sets precedent for future presidents
69 1864: Life During WartimeThe Civil War brings about dramatic social and economic changes in American society including:1) African Americans join the Union army to fight(54th Massachusetts)2) Other slaves seek freedom behind Union army lines3) On plantations: some destroy property, others refuse to leave
73 The War Affects Regional Economies FOOD SHORTAGES in the SouthFood shortages from lost manpower, Union occupation, loss of slavesBlockade creates other shortages; some Confederates trade with enemyECONOMY BOOM in the NorthIndustries that supply army boom; some contractors cheat and profitWages do not keep up with prices; workers’ standard of living dropsWomen replace men on farms, city jobs, government jobsCongress establishes first income tax on earnings to pay for war
75 Soldiers Suffer on Both Sides More soldiers died from Dysentery (diarrhea) than were killed in battleLived in unsanitary camps, conditions (epidemics easily spread) wash hands 1/day, bathe 1/week75% of surgeries were amputations (saw often used on 1 person after another w/o sanitizing)- fingers the most amputated body part
76 Soldiers Suffer on Both Sides PrisonsAndersonville—worst Confederate prison (in Georgia)Conditions so bad that Major (warden) Henry Wirz is tried, convicted, hanged for war crimes from Andersonvilleno shelter, sanitation, little food1/3 of prisoners dieNorthern prisons more space, food, shelter Major
77 The North Takes Charge UNION army is wearing down the CONFEDERACY KEY VICTORIES for Union:1) Vicksburg, and2) Gettysburg
78 Armies Clash at Gettysburg Prelude to GettysburgIn May 1863, South defeats North at ChancellorsvilleStonewall Jackson mistakenly shot by own troopsdies 8 days later of pneumonia
79 Armies Clash at Gettysburg Three-day battle at Gettysburg devastates/cripples the South…1) Union (Meade) and Confederate (Lee)2) vicious artillery fire3) on 3rd day, Lee retreats and Meade stays behindStaggering losses on both sidesThis is the turning point in the war
81 Vicksburg Under Siege Grant Wins at Vicksburg Confederate Vicksburg prevents Union from controlling MississippiSpring 1863, Union destroys MS rail lines, sacks JacksonGrant begins siege in MayStarving Confederates surrender on July 4Confederacy completely divided
83 The Gettysburg Address The Memorial CeremonyNovember 1863, ceremony held to dedicate cemetery in Gettysburg and honors dead soldiersEdward Everett, noted speaker, gives flowery two-hour speechLincoln’s two-minute Gettysburg Address asserts unity of U.S.Speech calls for living to dedicate selves to preserving the Union and freedom
84 The Confederacy Wears Down Confederate MoraleSouth unable to attack; hopes to get armisticeCivilian morale plummetsDiscord in governmentGrant Appoints ShermanMarch 1864, Lincoln appoints Grant commander of all Union armiesGrant appoints William Tecumseh Sherman commander of Mississippi division [West]Grant, Sherman believe in total warto destroy South’s will to fight
85 The Confederacy Wears Down Grant and Lee in VirginiaGrants’s strategy:1) immobilize Lee in Virginia while Sherman raids Georgia2) May 1864-April 1865, Grant and Lee fight many battles- heavy losses on both sides- North can replace soldiers – South cannot!
86 Sherman’s “March to the Sea” through Georgia, 1864
87 The Confederacy Wears Down Sherman’s March to the SeaSept, 1864:1) Sherman takes Atlanta- not much of a fight, Atlanta mostly vacant2) Sherman cuts wide path (60 miles) of destruction across Georgia towards Savannah3) By December, takes Savannah and moves up to SC- even more destruction in SC
88 1864 ElectionPres. Lincoln (R)George McClellan (D)
89 The Confederacy Wears Down The Election of 18641) Lincoln re-elected for 2nd termIT’S OVER! The Surrender at Appomatox1) Davis’s government leaves Richmond and burn it to the ground2) Lee surrenders April 9, 1865 at the Appomattox Courthouse- Lee’s soldiers paroled on generous terms
91 The Legacy of the WarCivil War settles long-standing disputes over states’ rights and slavery.Many changes follow….
92 The War Changes the Nation Political Changes1) ends threats of secession2) increases power of federal governmentEconomic Changes1) new federal system of chartered banks2) Gap between North and South widens- North: industry and commercial agriculture growth- South: industry, farms destroyed
94 Civil War Casualties in Comparison to Other Wars
95 The Costs of the War Costs of the War 1) Hundreds of thousands dead, wounded; lives disruptedUnion troops killed 360,000Confederate troops killed 260,000Financially, war costs the government anestimated $3.3 billion
96 The War Changes Lives New Birth of Freedom 1) 1865: 13th Amendment abolishes slavery in all statesCivilians Follow New Paths1) Some soldiers stay in army, others are civilians, many go west
99 The War Changes our Future Assassination of President Abraham Lincoln1) April 14, 1865, Lincoln is shot at Ford’s Theatre2) Assassin John Wilkes Booth escapes, is trapped by Union cavalry and shot3) 7 million people pay respects to Lincoln’s funeral train