21. Which of the following is the most CORRECT statement of the effect of President Lincoln's assassination?a. Martial law was declared in all but the New England states.b. Congressional and presidential plans for Reconstruction were combined.c. Radical Republicans, advocating a less lenient Reconstruction, gainedmore power and influence.d. Reconstruction "hard-liners" were blamed for inciting the assassination.The assassin, John Wilkes Booth, was captured and investigators discovered that he was part of a group that had planned to assassinate other government officials, including Vice-President Johnson and Secretary of War Stanton. As the public became aware of the scope of the plan, the hand of the Radical Republicans was strengthened.
32. The primary purpose of the Black Codes was to a. ensure the civil rights of the former slavesb. encourage vocational training and education for freedmenc. weaken the power of the Democratic Partyd. keep blacks under white control and break their economic powerDuring the first few years after the Civil War, the lenient Lincoln-Johnson Reconstruction policy gave Southern state governments much freedom in their internal affairs. Southern whites took advantage of this lenience by enacting Black Codes. These laws, passed in 1865 and 1866, had two main purposes: one was to deprive blacks of certain rights and keep them socially inferior to whites. The other purpose was to break the spirit and the economic power of free black laborers.
43. Which of the following measures declared that all persons born in the United States were citizens of the United States?a. 13th Amendmentb. 14th Amendmentc. 15th Amendmentd. Emancipation ProclamationThe 14th Amendment (ratified in 1868) declared that all persons born in the United States were citizens of the United States. It created a new kind of citizenship -- national citizenship.
54. Which of the following is TRUE? a. carpetbaggers were Northerners who went South to participate inReconstructionb. scalawags were freedmen who went Northc. scalawags were white Southerners who had lost the right to voted. carpetbaggers were Southern whites who accepted posts inreconstruction governmentsCarpetbaggers was the derogatory term used by Southerners to describe Northerners who went South to participate in Reconstruction. Some worked to help blacks, but others sought personal power or fortune. These people were called "carpetbaggers" because many of them carried luggage made of carpeting material.
65. One Southern reaction to Congressional Reconstruction was the use of racist secret societies to obstruct Reconstruction policies by intimidation. One such society was thea. Knights of Laborb. Patrons of Husbandry and the Grangec. Native American Associationd. Knights of the White CamelliaOne Southern reaction to Congressional Reconstruction was the use of racist secret societies to obstruct Reconstruction policies through intimidation. One such society was the Knights of the White Camellia (1860). Others were the Ku Klux Klan (1865), the White League, the Invisible Circle, and the Pale Faces. They were all secret societies that opposed Reconstruction and promoted "white supremacy."