2 CALORIESDefinition: The unit of energy necessary to raise 1 Liter of Water 1 !Caloric Intake/ Expenditure Theorm:When one consumes more calories than they burn, One gains weight.When one burns more calories than they consume, One loses weight.
4 Metabolism People with Fast Metabolism- 1. Eat on Regular Basis DEFINITION: Rate at which food is Digested/ Calories burned.People with Fast Metabolism- 1. Eat on Regular Basis2. Monitor their portion sizes3. Are Well Hydrated4. Make Exercise a PriorityPeople with Slow Metabolism- 1. Skip Meals2. Over Eat when they Dine.3. Lead Sedentary Lifestyles.4. Often Tired.Note: Metabolism can be affected by the Health of the Thyroid Gland!
6 Serving Sizes & Portion Control Can help to modify/ change one’s metabolismMeal Planning:TRADITIONAL/ MILITARISTIC* Three Square Meals a DayRefers to Four Basic FoodGroups of the 80’s!* Large Portions/ meal* NO SNACKS (no need for it)!* Food/ Energy is sustained inbody for longer periods oftime. Calories burnt slowerto make up for the time inbetween meals.* Known as the “Norm” priorto further research of the90’s on metabolismHEALTHIER/ MODERN TEACHING* Six small meals a dayThree meals & three snacks* Eating every 2-3 hours* Beginning every meal with aGlass of Water.* Consuming Smaller Portionsizes*Re-training one’s body toEXPECT the next meal &following through.* Makes Metabolism Faster–Burn ALL calories beforenext meal—“Use as you go!”
9 BENEFITS of H2O Prevents loss of memory as you age Dehydration taxes the heartby causing it to pump fasterto get sufficient oxygen toyour musclesWater is essential for thebody to sweat & releasetoxinsCleanses toxic waste fromvarious parts of the body& carries it to the liver &kidneys for removalLubricates joints & lessensdiscomfort from Arthritisor back painSlows down the agingprocess and makes skinSmooth75% of Americans are chronically dehydratedLessens addictive urges including caffeine, alcohol, and certain drugsWater allows for efficient cell repairAllows red blood cells to carry oxygen more efficiently, resulting in better muscular function & increased mental activityWithout the flow of water there’s insufficient water to remove waste & toxins through your stoolA University of Washington study discovered that one glass of water stopped hunger pangs for almost100% of studied dieters
10 PROTEINS Important Facts: *grows, builds and repairs tissues *regulates body processes*supplies energy*maintains strength*aids body in resistance to infection*1 gram protein = 4 calories*excess consumption results in stored fat
11 PROTEINS About the Nutrient: Body needs 20 Amino Acids to survive. + Body only creates 11 Amino Acids on its own.The 9 Amino Acids that the body does NOT generate MUST come from outside sources!-Or-
12 PROTEINS Complete Proteins Incomplete Proteins *contain all 9 amino acids *do not contain all 9 amino acids*found in meat products *categorized under three headingsand by-products: grains- pastas, corn, whole grains*ex. -Butter, legumes- beans, peas, lentils-Milk, nuts & seeds- cashews, peanuts,-Yogurt, sunflower seeds-Pork Rinds *must pair two or more together to create a‘complete protein’*ex. -Red beans & Rice,-Peanut butter crackers,-Refried Beans on Corn Chips,-Hummus & Pita
13 CARBOHYDRATES Important Facts: *main source of energy *includes sugar, starch and fiber*any word with the suffix “ose” = sugar(i.e. Glucose, fructose, sucrose, maltose, lactose, dextrose, etc.)*1 gram Carbohydrate = 4 calories*excess consumption results in stored fat.
14 CARBOHYDRATES About the Nutrient: *Two Divisions of Carbohydrates: Simple and Complex*Complex Carbs are better for you.The Body needs to work harder/ expend energy to digestComplex Carbohydrates.*Simple Carbohydates have already been broken down/ milled/ over- processed for you. Your body does not need to burn any energyto mechanically break Simple Carbs down.*Anything made with White Flour is considered to be Simple. When Flouris harvested and milled, it is brown in color. It turns white fromthe loss of nutrients as it is processed and refined.*The Body changes carbs into blood sugar (glucose). That which the body needs, it uses. Excess glucose is then converted into stored fat (glycogen)—found in muscles. The body will change glycogen back into blood sugar when body needs more energy!
15 CARBOHYDRATES Simple Carbohydrates Complex Carbohydrates *sugar/ white flour *starches and fiber*already broken down *body must work/ expendfor you through process energy to break down andof refinement digest food*sweets, goodies, white flour *Potatoes, Rice, Corn
16 FATS Important Facts: *provides energy *protects and cushions internal organs*contributes to taste and texture of food*maintains body heat*provides an energy reserve*aides in brain, nerve, and eye development*1 gram of Fat = 9 calories
17 FATS About the Nutrient: Two main divisions of Fat: Saturated /Unsaturated*Saturated Fat is Animal Fat, “grizzle”*Saturated Fat contains cholesterol, the substance that collects in one’sarteries and can clog blood flow.*Cholesterol is made up of HDL (High Density Lipoproteins = GOOD for yourliver) & LDL (Low Density Lipoproteins= BAD for your heart).*Unsaturated Fat is extracted from Plants. Better for you than Saturated Fat.*Hydrogenation is the process by which Hydrogen Atoms are chemically addedto alter an unsaturated fat resulting in Hydrogenated Oil and Transfat*Transfat is bad for you although its benefits include:- increasing shelf life of food,- is less greasy.*Monounsaturated Oils are better for you than Polyunsaturated Oils
18 FATS *meat products *plant & fish products *cholesterol MONO POLY Saturated Unsaturated*solid at room temp *liquid at room temp*meat products *plant & fish products*cholesterol MONO POLY*Olive, Canola *Corn, Veggie(both directly related to # H Atoms)
20 VITAMINS Important Facts: * Compounds that help regulate vital body processes, including the Digestion, Absorption, and Metabolism of other Nutrients.* Vitamins are MICRONUTRIENTS* Helps the body use Carbohydrates, Proteins, & Fats* Vitamins do not supply calories.* Vitamins speed up reactions that PRODUCE energy in the body cells.* Only ONE (1) Vitamin is manufactured by the body: Vitamin D
21 VITAMINS About the Nutrient: * Different Vitamins regulate different processes* Sub- Catagorized as Fat- Soluable & Water Soluable* Fat- Soluable Vitamins: A, D, E, K-Dissolves in Fat-Can be Toxic if consumed in great quantities.* Water-Soluable Vitamins: C, B complex-Dissolves in Water- Cannot be stored in the body in significant amounts.
22 VITAMINS FAT- SOLUABLE: WATER- SOLUABLE: Vitamin A: Maintains Skin. Strengthens Toothenamel. Promotes use of Calcium in BoneGrowth. Keeps Eyes moist. Helps Eyes Adjustto Darkness.*Sources= Milk/ dairy products, Greens,Carrots, Deep-Orange Fruits, LiverVitamin D: Promotes use of Calcium &Phosphorus. Essential for Bone & ToothFormation.*Sources=Milk, Eggs, Dairy, Salmon, Beef,Sardines, MargarineVitamin E: Transports O2 through Blood, Relatesto Longevity, protects against RBC destruction.*Sources= Veggie Oils, Nuts, Seeds,Legumes, Wheat GermVitamin K: Blood Clotting. Regulates BloodCalcium Levels*Sources= Spinach, Broccoli, Eggs, Liver,Cabbage, TomatoesWATER- SOLUABLE:Vitamin C: Protects against Infection.Helps with formation of connectivetissue. Helps Wounds heal. Maintainselasticity & strength of blood vessels.Promotes health teeth & gums.*Sources= Citrus Fruits, Cantaloupe,Tomatoes, Cabbage, Broccoli, Potatoes, PeppersVitamin B complex: (Thiamine, Roboflavin,Niacin, B6, Folic Acid, B12, Pantothenic Acid)Changes Glucose into Energy/ Fat. AA& Carb metabolism. Production ofDNA.*Sources= Grains, Nuts, Legumes,Animal Products, Green Vegetables
25 MINERALS Important Facts: * Inorganic Substances that the body cannot manufacture energy but acts asCatalysts (substances that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without undergoing any permanent chemical change itself)* Minerals are naturally occuring inorganic substances.* Regulates many vital body processes.* Minerals are MICRONUTRIENTS.* Sub-Catagorized as TRACE Minerals & MACRO Minerals.* Minerals are found on the Periodic Chart(Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Zinc, Calcium, Sodium, Phosphorus)* Every Mineral has its own unique function in Health.
26 MINERALS About the Nutrient: TRACE Minerals: Necessary in very small amounts:Iron– Aids RBC in transporting Oxygen (anemia) Zinc– Necessary for digesting enzymes & healing woundsCopper– Necessary for production of hemoglobin in RBCsIodine– Necessary for production of Thyroid gland hormonesManganese– Aids in synthesis of Cholesterol & normal function of Nerve tissueMACRO Minerals: Required in amounts of Greater than 100 mg:Calcium– builds up bones & teethMagnesium– aids in metabolismPhosphorus– builds bones, teeth & cellsPotassium– keeps fluids balanced within cellsSodium– necessary for water balance in cells and tissues , & nerve cell conductionSulfur– builds hair, nails, and skin
30 SUPPLEMENTS: * Definition: “INSTEAD OF” Different types (most popular):Herbal & Protein Supplements* Herbal Supplements:Contains extracts or ingredientsfrom the roots, stems, leaves,buds or flowers of plants.Comes in different forms–tablets,capsules, powders, gelcaps, & liquids* NOT TESTED or REGULATED BYFDA (Food & Drug Admin.)* Often Causes Body to DECREASEits productivity of hormones thatregulate its Natural Release.