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CHAPTER. Supervisión y controlM. En C. Eduardo Bustos Farías2 The Organization Structure A.Organization charts –A series of boxes connected with one or.

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Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER. Supervisión y controlM. En C. Eduardo Bustos Farías2 The Organization Structure A.Organization charts –A series of boxes connected with one or."— Presentation transcript:

1 CHAPTER

2 Supervisión y controlM. En C. Eduardo Bustos Farías2 The Organization Structure A.Organization charts –A series of boxes connected with one or more lines to graphically represent the organization’s structure –It provides an overall picture of how the entire organization fits together B.Departmentation –The most common method of structuring an organization –It can be functional or geographic C.Authority and the supervisor –The right to issue directives and expend resources –Authority of supervisors is determined by upper level management and implemented through the organization structure

3 Supervisión y controlM. En C. Eduardo Bustos Farías3 The Organization Structure Line versus staff authority Line authority – based on the supervisor-subordinate relationship; creating a direct line of authority from the top to the bottom of the organization structure Staff authority – specialists in a particular field used to support and advise line personnel The largest number of supervisors are usually line managers Line and staff conflict – staff specialists resent that they are only advisors to line managers, whereas line managers feel that staff always tries to interfere

4 Supervisión y controlM. En C. Eduardo Bustos Farías4 The Organization Structure D.Centralized versus decentralized authority –The degree of authority delegated by top management –The more freedom the supervisor has to make decisions, the more decentralized the organization –Empowerment is a form of decentralization that gives subordinates substantial authority to make decisions E.Responsibility and the supervisor –Responsibility is accountability for reaching objectives, using resources properly, and adhering to organizational policy –The term responsibility refers to job duties or the things that make up a supervisor's job F.Power and the supervisor –Power is the ability to get others to respond favorably to instructions and orders –Authority is the right to command and expend resources

5 Supervisión y controlM. En C. Eduardo Bustos Farías5 Principles of Supervision Based on Authority The following are guides to assist the supervisor in the proper use of authority: A.Parity principle –Authority and responsibility must coincide B.Exception principle –Supervisors should concentrate their efforts on matters that deviate from the normal and let their employees handle routine matters C.Unity of command principle –An employee should have one and only one immediate boss

6 Supervisión y controlM. En C. Eduardo Bustos Farías6 Principles of Supervision Based on Authority D.Scalar principle –Authority flows one link at a time from the top of the organization to the bottom (chain of command) E.Span of control principle -- The number of employees a supervisor can effectively mange. The supervisor’s span depends on several factors: –Complexity of the jobs –The variety of the jobs –The proximity of the jobs –The quality of the people filling the jobs –The ability of the supervisor

7 Supervisión y controlM. En C. Eduardo Bustos Farías7 Delegating Authority and Responsibility In common use, delegation refers to the delegation of authority to assist the receiving party in completing assigned duties. Responsibility can be delegated in the sense of making employees responsible for certain actions, but it does not make the delegating party less responsible.

8 Supervisión y controlM. En C. Eduardo Bustos Farías8 Delegating Authority and Responsibility A.Successful delegation includes the delegation of both authority and responsibility B.Assigning work: 1.Identify what work should be delegated 2.Decide which subordinates should handle each task 3.Communicate what needs to be done, not how C.Creating an obligation: 1.Tell the employee what is expected 2.Feelings of responsibility come from within the individual

9 Supervisión y controlM. En C. Eduardo Bustos Farías9 Delegating Authority and Responsibility D.Granting permission (authority): –Empowerment involves giving employees substantial authority to make decisions. The keys to successful empowering are: Express confidence in employee’s abilities to perform at high levels Design jobs so that employees have considerable freedom Set meaningful and challenging goals Applaud good performance Encourage employees to take personal responsibility for their work

10 Supervisión y controlM. En C. Eduardo Bustos Farías10 Why people are reluctant to delegate? A.Most supervisors are promoted from the ranks of operative employees, where performance is an individual function. A supervisor’s performance is almost totally dependent on the performance of others. Problems occur when the new supervisor does not fully realize the difference. 1.If you want something done right, do it yourself 2.It is easier to do it myself 3.Fear of an employee looking too good 4.The human attraction for power 5.More confidence in doing detail work 6.Preconceived ideas about employees 7.Desire to set the right example

11 Supervisión y controlM. En C. Eduardo Bustos Farías11 Delegating Authority and Responsibility B.Tasks that cannot be delegated -- The following things normally should not be delegated: 1.Planning activities 2.Assigning work 3.Motivational problems 4.Counseling employees 5.Resolving conflict situations 6.Tasks specifically assigned to the supervisor

12 Supervisión y controlM. En C. Eduardo Bustos Farías12 Practical Tips For Effective Delegation Know your employees’ abilities Don’t be afraid of over delegating Practice good communication skills when delegating Minimize overlap of authority Give employees some freedom in deciding how to implement their authority Assign related areas of authority and responsibility to each individual Once you have delegated, let the employees take over Do not expect perfection the first time


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