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11 Management Functions and Principles. 22 Overview The Managerial Environment Management Processes (Functions) Managerial Roles Universality of the Manager’s.

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Presentation on theme: "11 Management Functions and Principles. 22 Overview The Managerial Environment Management Processes (Functions) Managerial Roles Universality of the Manager’s."— Presentation transcript:

1 11 Management Functions and Principles

2 22 Overview The Managerial Environment Management Processes (Functions) Managerial Roles Universality of the Manager’s Job Managerial Skills Management from the Air Force Perspective Case Study

3 33 The Managerial Environment  Managers Individuals in an organization who direct the activities of others  Organization A systematic arrangement of people brought together to accomplish some specific purpose; applies to all organizations—for-profit as well as not-for-profit organizations, military as well as non-military Where managers work (manage)  Common characteristics Goals Structure People

4 44 Common Characteristics of Organizations

5 55 How Do We Define Management?  Management The process of getting things done, effectively and efficiently, through and with other people Efficiency Means doing the thing correctly; refers to the relationship between inputs and outputs; seeks to minimize resource costs Effectiveness Means doing the right thing; goal attainment

6 66 Efficiency and Effectiveness

7 77 Management Process Activities Management processes: planning, organizing, leading, and controlling

8 88 Management Processes Planning Defining goals Establishing strategy Developing plans to coordinate activities

9 99 Management Processes Basics of Planning Must accomplish objectives with available resources Must answer who, what, when, where, why, and how Must be in writing, must be kept up-to-date, and must be changed when the situation requires

10 10 Management Processes Ten Essential Planning Activities for Air Force Managers 1.Understand the mission 2.Focus on the desired result 3.Analyze the operating environment 4.Involve others in the planning process 5.Divide the project into manageable parts 6.Determine key objectives 7.Analyze alternate courses of action 8.Select the best course of action 9.Publish the plan 10.Modify the plan when the situation requires

11 11 Management Processes Organizing Determine tasks: What to do Establish structure: Who does it Allocate resources Develop procedures to get it done

12 12 Management Processes Principles of Organizing Effective span of control Functional grouping Unity of command Clear delegation of authority

13 13 Management Processes Leading Motivating Directing activities of others Selecting the most effective communication channels Resolving conflicts

14 14 Management Processes Controlling Monitoring performance Comparing performance with goals Correcting significant deviations

15 15 The Four Management Processes Planning Organizing Leading Controlling

16 16 Managerial Roles Interpersonal Informational Decisional Source: The Nature of Managerial Work (paperback) by H. Mintzberg. Table 2, pp. 92–93. Reprinted by permission of Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, New Jersey.

17 17 Is the Manager’s Job Universal? Level in the organization Profit versus not-for-profit Size of organization Transferability across national borders Making decisions and dealing with change

18 18 Distribution of Time per Activity by Organizational Level Source: Adapted from T. A. Mahoney, T. H. Jerdee, and S. J. Carroll, “The Job(s) of Management.” Industrial Relations 4, no. 2 (1965), p First Level Managers: Direct the day-to-day activities of subordinates Middle Manager: Manage other managers; translate goals of top management into details lower-level managers can perform Top Manager: Establishes policies that affect all organization members

19 19 General Skills for Managers  Conceptual skills A manager’s mental ability to coordinate all of the organization’s interests and activities  Interpersonal skills A manager’s ability to work with, understand, mentor, and motivate others, both individually and in groups  Technical skills A manager’s ability to use the tools, procedures, and techniques of a specialized field  Political skills A manager’s ability to build a power base and establish the right connections

20 20 Specific Skills for Managers  Behaviors related to a manager’s effectiveness: Controlling the organization’s environment and its resources Organizing and coordinating Handling information Providing for growth and development Motivating employees and handling conflicts Strategic problem solving

21 21 Air Force Management Philosophy Management is a command responsibility Managers must achieve greatest effectiveness with available resources Decentralized operations = optimized resources Centralized resource control is essential

22 22 Air Force Management Policies Commanders ensure effective management of human, materiel, and financial resources Decentralized operations: centrally controlled as required Organizations, methods, and procedures must be readily adaptable to changing conditions Decision-making authority must be decentralized to improve productivity, job satisfaction

23 23 CASE STUDY Do Organizations Need Managers, Leaders, or Both?

24 24 Summary The Managerial Environment Management Processes Managerial Roles Universality of the Manager’s Job Managerial Skills Management from the Air Force Perspective Case Study


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