2 OrganizingOrganization: collection of people working together under a division of labor and a hierarchy of authority to achieve a common goal- The second managerial function after planning process.- Need large number of workers to require a supervisor.Organizations facilitate greater accomplishment of work by groups.Manager develops order, promotes cooperation among workers, and fosters productivityMajor component: position, task responsibilities, &Relation ships.
3 Organization involves: Defining the agency’s mission and objectivesEstablishing policies and plans.Clarifying the activities necessary to meet the objectives.Organizing for best utilization of available human and material resources.Delegating the responsibility and authority to appropriate personnelGrouping personnel vertically & horizontally through information & authority relationships
4 Organizational structure: Organizational structure furnishes the formal framework in management process.Organizational structure should provide an effective work system, & should consequently foster job satisfaction
5 Informal & formal organization structures agencies: 1) Informal organization: personal and social relationships do not appear on the organizational chart.- Based on personal relationships rather than positional authorityprovides social satisfaction, & may gain recognitionInformal authority is not commanded through organizational assignment.Authority comes from the follower’s natural respect for a colleague’s knowledge and abilitiesProvides social control of behavior
6 2) Formal organization structures: Formal organizational structure: executive decision as a result of planning.The relationships among people and their positions can be diagramed.Describes positions, task responsibilities and relationships
7 Nursing Department Utilize One Of The Following Structural Patterns A- Line organization and line – and – staff organization, are the most common structures in large health care facilities:Organization’s structure commonly draw in an organization chart.Line positions shown by either horizontal or vertical unbroken lines.Horizontal unbroken lines represent communication between similar power but different functions
8 represent staff position. Vertical unbroken lines between positions means formal paths of communication & authority.Greatest decision making and authority persons are located at the top, and the least are at the bottom*Dotted or broken lines on the organization chart:represent staff position.(advisory, provides information and assistance to manager but has limited organizational authority)
9 - specialization that would be impossible for any one manager to achieve alone Command way indicated by vertical solid line between individuals.One person / one boss. .Line Organizations have no advisory positions.Line -and- staff have advisory positionsIn these structures authority and responsibility are clearly defined with simplicity of relationships
10 Disadvantages of formal design: Often produce monotony and alienate workers.ينتج عنها ملل ونفورAdherence to chain of command restricts upward communication(Going outside of the chain of command for upward communication inappropriate)
11 B- Functional structure: Employees are grouped: similar tasks in same group, similar group in the same department, & similar departments reporting to the same manager.Ex. All nursing tasks are under nursing service.CEOChief executive officerNursingDietaryPharmacyStoreroom
12 * Advantages of functional organizations: - They use resource efficientlyDo not duplicate tasks.Simplify training. (common tasks grouped together for economy of scale) *Disadvantages of functional organizationsPoor coordination across functions.Response time is slower.
13 C- Dual management:Separates technical and administrative responsibilities.One hierarchy for technical professionals make technical decisions, & another hierarchy for supervisors make decisions about management issues e.g. personnel and budget.This dual hierarchy gives equal status to managers and technical professionals. It provides job description for each hierarchy.
14 D- Self – Contained unit structure:هيكلية القسم * Functions needed to produce a service are grouped together in an autonomous division. E.g.( large institution)Strengths:Each division has its specialty & high client satisfaction can be achievedHigh employees coordination across functions occurs to meet unit goals & reduce conflict.weaknesses:- Coordination across product lines is difficult. division operate independently.- Each service line has its own nursing staff and competes with other service lines
15 E- Matrix structure:Structure has a formal vertical as well as horizontal chain of command.separate executives are responsible for each side of the matrix.Heads of Departments may receive conflicting demands from the matrix managers and often must resolve the conflict themselves.
16 Advantages: (matrix structure): - Strong contact between staff of different divisionsDisadvantages:Dual authority frustrating and confusing for managers and employees in dept.Need excellent interpersonal skills for involved managersTime-consuming because frequent meetings are required to resolve conflicts
17 Organizational concepts: Charts: drawing shows how the parts of an organization are linked.It depicts the formal organizational relationshipsAreas of responsibility& accountability, and channels of communication
18 Span of Management (Span Of Control) Can be determined from the organization chart.It is the number of people (subordinates) reporting to any manager represents the manager’s span of control & determines the number of interactions expected of him .Graicunas, a management consultant analyze potential relationships between a supervisor and his/her subordinates, and among the subordinates.
19 As the number of subordinates increase arithmetically, number of potential interactions increased geometrically (single, direct group, cross RT)************************************************Optimal span of management depends on the following considerations:The manager’s abilitiesThe employee’s maturity.Task complexityGeographic location
20 Decentralization Versus Centralization: Centralized: decision making done by a manager at the top of the hierarchyDecentralized: decision making diffuses throughout the organization, and allow problem solving at the level at which they occur
21 Advantages of decentralization: Increases morale & promotes interpersonal relationshipsencourage informality and democracy in managementFacilitate local decision making by Managers & othersDevelops managers by allowing them to manageIncrease flexibility.Releases top managers from the routine administration.Freeing managers for planning, and policy development, and systems integration
22 Disadvantages of decentralization Divisions may become individualized and competitive and work against the best interests of the organization.تضحية بالأهداف العامة لمصلحة ضيقةIncrease costs, need more manager and large staffsDivision managers may not inform top manager of their problems.
23 DelegationGetting work done through others to accomplish organizational goalsprocess of assigning work from one organizational level to another or from superior to subordinateDelegation Has two legs (Responsibility & Authority)Delegation increase subordinate's motivation and commitment to accomplish goals.The manager concentrates on the accomplishment of overall goals and objectives rather than the day-to-day detailsIn delegation the manager delegate (authority & the power)
24 Departmentalization: Subdivide of the organizational structures.Managers specialize within limited ranges of activityDepartmentalization by functionDepartmentalization by productionDepartmentalization by customersDepartmentalization by geographical territories.Departmentalization by project.
25 Authority : The official power to act. Given by the organization to direct the work of others.A manager may have the authority to hire, fire, or discipline others .Responsibility: is a duty or an assignmentAccountability: morally internalizing responsibility.- Agreement to accept the consequences of your actions.