Presentation on theme: "The Context of Motivation"— Presentation transcript:
0 Management Principles MotivationCraig W. Fontaine, Ph.D.
1 The Context of Motivation Some definitions:Performance is a product of motivation and ability moderated by situation constraintsAbility is an individual’s capacity to perform certain tasksSituational constraints refers to factors in the workplace that hinder performanceMotivation………..
2 Defining Motivation Motivation The processes that account for an individual’s intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal.Key ElementsIntensity: how hard a person triesDirection: toward beneficial goalPersistence: how long a person tries
3 The Nature of Motivation (cont’d) Intrinsic MotivationBehavior that is performed for its own sake.The source of the motivation that comes from actually engaging in the behavior.The sense of accomplishment and achievement derived from doing the work itselfExtrinsic MotivationBehavior that is performed to acquire material or social rewards or to avoid punishment.The source of the motivation is the consequences of the behavior and not the behavior itself.
5 Hierarchy of Needs Theory (Maslow) There is a hierarchy of five needs—physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization; as each need is substantially satisfied, the next need becomes dominant.Self-ActualizationThe drive to become what one is capable of becoming.
6 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Lower-Order Needs Needs that are satisfied externally; physiological and safety needs.Higher-Order Needs Needs that are satisfied internally; social, esteem, and self-actualization needs.Source: Motivation and Personality , 2nd ed,, by A.H. Maslow, Reprinted by permission of Prentice Hall, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ.
8 Alderfer’s ERG TheoryERG Theory is slightly different then Need Theory (Maslow)People’s needs are grouped into three overlapping categories—existence, relatedness, and growth.Maslow’s hierarchy is collapsed into three levels:Existence needs related to physiological and safety needs.Relatedness needs that are similar to social and esteem by others.Growth needs encompass needs for self-esteem and self-actualization.ERG theory assumes that:Multiple needs can be operative at one time (there is no absolute hierarchy of needs – Unlike Need TheoryIf a need is unsatisfied, a person will regress to a lower-level need and pursue that need (Frustration Regression).
9 Need Theory compared to ERG Theory PhysiologicalSafety & SecuritySocialEsteemSAGrowthRelatednessExistence10
10 Theory X and Theory Y (Douglas McGregor) Assumes that employees dislike work, lack ambition, avoid responsibility, and must be directed and coerced to perform.Theory YAssumes that employees like work, seek responsibility, are capable of making decisions, and exercise self-direction and self-control when committed to a goal.
11 Assumptions of Theory X Naturally indolent (Lazy)Lack ambition, dislike responsibility, and prefer to be ledInherently self-centered and indifferent to organizational needsNaturally resistant to changeGullible, not bright, ready dupesAdapted from Table 5.1 which is from “The Human Side of Enterprise” by Douglas M. McGregor, reprinted from Management Review, November Copyright 1957 American Management Association International. Reprinted by permission of American Management Association International, New York, NY. All rights reserved.78
12 Assumptions of Theory Y Experiences in organizations result in passive and resistant behaviors; they are not inherentMotivation, development potential, capacity for assuming responsibility, readiness to direct behavior toward organizational goals are present in peopleManagement’s task—arrange conditions and operational methods so people can achieve their own goals by directing efforts to organizational goalsAdapted from Table 5.1 which is from “The Human Side of Enterprise” by Douglas M. McGregor, reprinted from Management Review, November Copyright 1957 American Management Association International. Reprinted by permission of American Management Association International, New York, NY. All rights reserved.89
13 Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory Intrinsic factors are related to job satisfaction, while extrinsic factors are associated with dissatisfaction.Motivator needs relate to the nature of the work itself—autonomy, responsibility, interesting work.Hygiene needs are related to the physical and psychological context of the work—comfortable work environment, pay, job security.Unsatisfied hygiene needs create dissatisfaction; satisfaction of hygiene needs does not lead to motivation or job satisfaction.
14 The Two-Factor Theory of Motivation SatisfactionNo satisfactionMotivation Factors•AchievementRecognitionThe work itselfResponsibilityAdvancement and growthThe Two-Factor Theory of MotivationDissatisfactionNo dissatisfactionHygiene Factors•SupervisorsWorking conditionsInterpersonal relationsPay and securityCompany policies andadministration
16 Contrasting Views of Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction
17 David McClelland’s Theory of Needs Need for AchievementThe drive to excel, to achieve in relation to a set of standards, to strive to succeed.Need for AffiliationThe desire for friendly and close personal relationships.Need for PowerThe need to make others behave in a way that they would not have behaved otherwise.nAchnPownAff
18 Goal-Setting Theory (Edwin Locke) The theory that specific and difficult goals, with feedback, lead to higher performance.Characteristics of GoalsGoal difficultyExtent to which a goal is challenging and requires effort.People work harder to achieve more difficult goals.Goals should be difficult but attainable.Goal specificityClarity and precision of the goal.Goals vary in their ability to be stated specifically.
19 Goal-Setting Theory (continued) Other considerationsAcceptanceThe extent to which persons accept a goal as their own.CommitmentThe extent to which an individual is personally interested in reaching a goal.
20 Reinforcement TheoryThe assumption that behavior is a function of its consequences.Concepts:Behavior is environmentally caused.Behavior can be modified (reinforced) by providing (controlling) consequences.Reinforced behavior tends to be repeated.
21 Reinforcement Theory and Learning Based on the idea that behavior is a function of its consequences.Behavior that results in pleasant consequences (reward) is likely to be repeated.Behavior that results in unpleasant consequences (punishment) is less likely to be repeated.“Responses that produce a satisfying effect in a particular situation become more likely to occur again in that situation, and responses that produce a discomforting effect become less likely to occur again in that situation”From: Edward Thorndike’s “Law of Effect”
22 Types of Reinforcement in Organizations Positive ReinforcementA reward or other desirable consequence that follows behavior.Avoidance (Negative Reinforcement)Rather than receiving a reward following a desirable behavior, the person is given the opportunity to avoid an unpleasant consequence.ExtinctionDecreases the frequency of behavior by eliminating a reward or desirable consequence that follows that behavior.PunishmentAn unpleasant, or aversive, consequence that results from behavior.
23 Types of Reinforcement – Examples of Use Positive Reinforcement and avoidance can be used to motivate desired behaviors by employees
24 Types of Reinforcemene – Example of Use Extinction and Punishment can be used to change undesired employee
25 Schedules of Reinforcement Continuous ReinforcementA desired behavior is reinforced each time it is demonstrated.Intermittent ReinforcementA desired behavior is reinforced often enough to make the behavior worth repeating but not every time it is demonstrated.
26 Schedules of Reinforcement (cont’d) Fixed-Interval ScheduleRewards are spaced at uniform time intervals.Variable-Interval ScheduleRewards are initiated after a fixed or constant number of responses.
27 Schedules of Reinforcement (cont’d) Fixed-ratio
29 Intermittent Schedules of Reinforcement (cont’d)
30 Related Aspects of Learning Reinforcement GeneralizationThe process of recognizing relationships between behavior and reinforcement in different settings.Social LearningOccurs when people observe the behaviors of others, recognize their consequences, and alter their own behaviors as a result.
31 Equity TheoryAdams proposed that a worker’s motivation is based on social comparison.Individuals compare their job inputs and outcomes with those of others and then respond to eliminate any inequities.There can be:EquityUnderpaymentOverpayment
32 Equity Theory (cont’d) ConditionPerson ReferentExampleEquityOutcomes = OutcomesInputs InputsWorker contributesmore inputs but alsogets more outputsthan referentUnderpaymentOutcomes < Outcomesgets the same outputsas referentOverpaymentOutcomes > Outcomessame inputs but also
33 Responses to Perceptions of Equity and Inequity
34 Equity Theory – Related Concepts Distributive JusticePerceived fairness of the amount and allocation of rewards among individuals.Procedural JusticeThe perceived fairness of the process to determine the distribution of rewards.
35 Expectancy TheoryA cognitive theory, assumes workers to be a rational decision maker who will expend energy on activities that lead to desired rewardsThree basics elements:Expectancy an individuals perception that their effort (E) will result in performance (P)Instrumentality an individual’s perception that performance will lead to desired outcome (O)Valance the value the individual places on outcome (V)
36 Basic Concepts of Expectancy Theory VWill the outcome be satisfying?ValanceEffortPerformanceOutcomeExpectancyInstrumentalityE – PIf I exert a lot of effortwill I perform well?OIf I perform well will it lead to the desired outcome?
37 Expectancy Theory Relationships Summary Effort–Performance RelationshipThe probability that exerting a given amount of effort will lead to performance.Performance–Reward RelationshipThe belief that performing at a particular level will lead to the attainment of a desired outcome.Rewards–Personal Goals RelationshipThe degree to which organizational rewards satisfy an individual’s goals or needs and the attractiveness of potential rewards for the individual.
39 Summary and Implications for Managers Need TheoriesMaslow’s hierarchy, Two factor, ERG, & McClelland’sGoal Setting TheoryClear and difficult goals often lead to higher levels of employee productivity.Reinforcement TheoryGood predictor of quality and quantity of work, persistence of effort, absenteeism, tardiness, and accident rates.Equity TheoryStrongest when predicting absence and turnover behaviors.Weakest when predicting differences in employee productivity.Expectancy TheoryFocus on performance variablesIt is a “rational” model so be careful when using itThis theory may be better applied to employees with greater discretion in their jobs (i.e., as opposed to semi-skilled positions)
40 Popular Motivational Strategies Empowerment and ParticipationEmpowermentThe process of enabling workers to set their own work goals, make decisions, and solve problems within their sphere of influence.ParticipationThe process of giving employees a voice in making decisions about their work.Areas of Participation for EmployeesMaking decisions about their jobs.Decisions about administrative matters (e.g., work schedules).Participating in decision making about broader issues of product quality.
41 Actions That Empower Employees Increasesignature authorityat all levelsReduce thenumber of rulesReduce thenumber ofapproval stepsAssignnonroutinejobsSpecificActions thatEmpowerProvide morefreedom of accessto peopleAllowindependentjudgmentProvide morefreedom of accessto resourcesDefine jobsmore broadly asprojects
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