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Crucible of Freedom: Civil War 1861 – 1865. Abraham Lincoln First Inaugural Address –What promise about the issue.

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Presentation on theme: "Crucible of Freedom: Civil War 1861 – 1865. Abraham Lincoln First Inaugural Address –What promise about the issue."— Presentation transcript:

1 Crucible of Freedom: Civil War 1861 – 1865

2 Abraham Lincoln First Inaugural Address –What promise about the issue of slavery did Lincoln make? –Did Southerners believe him? –What action had some southern states taken? –What promise had Lincoln made about Federal property?

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4 Fort Sumter Read page 511 (red text) or 358 (green text) 465 (blue text) and summarize the events of April 12, 1861.

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6 Fort Sumter April 12, 1861, South Carolina militia began a bombard of Fort Sumter to prevent relief ships from bringing supplies –Lincoln declared an insurrection and called for 75,000 militia from loyal states. –This prompted several more southern states to secede (map 421) Stephen Douglas, “I deprecate war, but if it must come I am with my country, under all circumstances, and in every contingency.”

7 Pick your Advantages! See which advantages actually prove successful as the season unfolds! Will your picks survive the season? CIVIL WAR MILITARY

8 #1 Homefield Advantage #2 Standing Army –16, 000 vs 0 #3 Trained Officer Corps –2,000 vs 1,000 #4 Population –22 million vs 9 million CIVIL WAR MILITARY Key: Dk Blue = Union Lt Blue = Neutral, controlled by Union Red = CSA White = unorganized territories

9 #5 Politics: –Two Party vs No Party #6 Developed Banking System –Federal vs States –Tax collection, funds transfer CIVIL WAR MILITARY

10 #7 Railroads –2/3 vs 1/3 #8 Telegraph lines –Some vs None #9 Established Industry –90% vs 10% CIVIL WAR MILITARY

11 #10 Victory Conditions –Enemy Surrenders vs Enemy Quits Or –Complete and Total Victory vs “A tie is as good as a win” #11 Morale/Cause –States Rights vs Permanence of Union CIVIL WAR MILITARY

12 General Winfield Scott’s Plan Anaconda Plan: Blockade the southern coastline, capture the Mississippi River, then wait for Southern Unionists to sieze control of the CSA. #1 Homefield Advantage to whom?

13 Lincoln’s Initial Moves Advantage #2& 3: Standing Army Secure Border states: MD, DE, KY, MO –including Washington, D.C.

14 Lincoln’s Initial Moves A train of Massachusetts volunteers heading for Washington, D.C. was attacked by a mob in Baltimore Lincoln sent troops to Maryland and suspended habeas corpus. MD and DE rejected secession.

15 Advantage 3 Trained Officer Corps –2,000 vs 1,000 Included both –Robert E Lee –Ulysses S Grant Generally accepted that the South had the better officers –Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson

16 Compare information from Graphs Draw Conclusions

17 Drafts North and South Advantage #4 CSA April 1862, first “conscription” in US history. Exemptions: –CSA: Owners of 20 or more slaves –Union: Pay another man to serve in your place or $300 to be exempted. –What complaints might be raised against these loop- holes? Total draftees: –Union: 46,000 of 2,100,000 –CSA: 120,000 of 800,000 North experienced Draft Riots What do the number of volunteers, draftees, desertions, and riots say about #11 Morale?

18 First Battles, 1861 First Battle of Bull Run July 21, 1861 –Watched on hillsides by Washington dignitaries –Smaller CSA army routed Union army War settled into winter encampment and training March 9, 1862, CSS Virginia vs USS Monitor

19 1862 Begins Spring 1862 Peninsula Campaign by McClellan failed, CSA victory Second Battle of Bull Run Aug 28-30, CSA victory Battle of Antietam, Sept 17, Lee had invaded MD –Technically a draw but Lee withdrew –Strategically a Union victory

20 Wild Card! –Defense of Slavery vs Emancipation of Slaves CIVIL WAR MILITARY

21 Emancipation Proclamation “That on the 1st day of January, A.D. 1863, all persons held as slaves within any State or designated part of a State the people whereof shall then be in rebellion against the United States shall be then, thenceforward, and forever free; and the executive government of the United States, including the military and naval authority thereof, will recognize and maintain the freedom of such persons and will do not act or acts to repress such persons, or any of them, in any efforts they may make for their actual freedom.”

22 Emancipation Proclamation This document announces the freedom of slaves where? Would a slave in South Carolina be free? Would a slave in Pennsylvania be free? What might some of the immediate effects be of this Proclamation?

23 Emancipation Proclamation Immediate Effects African-Americans served in the Union armed forces to the extent of approximately 200,000 volunteers by the war's end. These soldiers were segregated into African- American units and largely led by white officers, nonetheless their contributions were significant. By reframing the conflict as a war against slavery Lincoln also neutralized the participation of England and France as potential allies of the South. Most French and English people were philosophically opposed to slavery, making support of the South politically unfeasible.

24 Previous Response to Editor of the NY Tribune, August 1862 "Dear Sir... I have not meant to leave any one in doubt.... My paramount objective in this struggle is to save the Union, and is not either to save or destroy Slavery. If I could save the Union without freeing any slave, I would do it; and if I could save it by freeing all the slaves, I would do it; and if I could do it by freeing some and leaving others alone, I would also do that. What I do about Slavery and the colored race, I do because it helps to save this Union; and what I forbear, I forbear because I do not believe it would help save the Union.... I have here stated my purpose according to my view of official duty, and I intend no modification of my oft-expressed personal wish that all men, everywhere, could be free.” Did the Emancipation Proclamation keep to this statement?

25 1862, Battles in the West Grant –Control of MO and KY –Captured forts in TN –Close call but a victory at Shiloh The CSA attack at Shiloh stripped the defenses of New Orleans allowing Admiral Farragut to capture it and surrounding areas.

26 1862 ends a bad year for the Union The Western battles were going well but the Eastern battles were what counted toward popular perception Peace Democrats (called “Copperheads” by the Republicans) demanded a truce and a peace conference. They were not in favor of Emancipation. There was very strong opposition to Lincoln, especially after he dismissed McClellan (who later ran against Lincoln in 1864 as a Democrat who promised to make peace with the CSA)

27 Politics: –Two Party vs No Party Discuss. Conclusion? Advantage 5

28 Developed Banking System The North and South issued Bonds to raise money, and printed Paper Money for cash –N trusted, 80% inflation –S distrusted, 9,000% inflation 1863 the Union passed the National Bank Act, revolutionizing public finance Advantage 6

29 #7 Railroads –2/3 vs 1/3 #8 Telegraph lines –Some vs None #9 Established Industry –90% vs 10% North has all advantages however, CSA never suffered for lack of war materiel (food and clothing yes, bullets and gunpowder, NO) Advantages, Technological

30 1863 The Turning Point Year Gettysburg, Union victory July 3. –View Video, discuss Gettysburg Address –http://edsitement.neh.gov/view_lesson_plan.asp?id=764http://edsitement.neh.gov/view_lesson_plan.asp?id=764 Vicksburg, Union victory July 4, finalizing the capture of the Mississippi, surrounding and blockading the South (effective, but not 100%) Coincidentally, in July, the NY draft riots occurred.

31 Grant’s Strategy to Win Early in 1864, Lincoln made Grant commander of US Army Grant won battles by taking advantage of the North’s larger population and superior ability to supply its army. Grant was willing to lose more soldiers and expend more supplies because he could replace his losses while the CSA could not. Some called him a “butcher” Lincoln said, “He wins.”

32 1864, Sherman’s March to the Sea Total War: Sherman burned Atlanta then moved south to Savannah taking what was needed for supplies and burning anything that could aid the CSA army. What effect did this have on civilian morale? War is a cruelty and you cannot refine it. Those who brought war into our country deserve all the curses and maledictions a people can pour out.

33 #9 Victory Conditions –Enemy Surrenders vs Enemy Quits Or –Complete and Total Victory vs “A tie is as good as a win” #10 Morale/Cause –States Rights vs Permanence of Union Advantage 9 & 10

34 The Beginning of the End Sherman took Savannah Dec 1864 wheeled north. He took Columbia, SC’s capital, without a fight and gutted much of the city. By Spring 1865 he was in NC. Other Union armies were moving through GA and AL, capturing thousands of CSA soldiers and freeing thousands of Union prisoners.

35 Grant Assaulted the Army of Northern Virginia at Petersburg, a railroad hub of Richmond. Captured Petersburg on April 2, Union troops went into Richmond April 3, 1865, as CSA troops retreated.

36 Appomattox Court House After Petersburg, Grant prevented Lee from escaping Virginia. On April 9, 1865, Lee asked for Terms of Surrender. Final surrender occurred on April 13, 1865.

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38 Impact of the American Civil War Settled the issue of state secession. Ended slavery. Put America more firmly on a path toward industrialization. Promoted large scale organizations such as Railroads and other businesses. Federal Government became more “central” and powerful. Changed the name “The United States” from a plural to a singular.

39 To Study Lincoln’s view on slavery (Inaugural speech, Emancipation Proclamation, response to editor) When/where CW started? Considering various advantages, who would you have bet on to win the CW? Why? Lincoln’s first moves Outline 1862 –Spring –Summer/Fall –East/West –Political situation Significance of 1863 Grant’s Strategy Sherman’s actions and affect Surrender date and place Overall # dead Lasting impact of CW Questions from presentations.

40 To Study Lincoln’s view on slavery (Inaugural speech, Emancipation Proclamation, response to editor) When/where CW started? Considering various advantages, who would you have bet on to win the CW? Why? Lincoln’s first moves Outline 1862 –Spring –Summer/Fall –East/West –Political situation Significance of 1863 Grant’s Strategy Sherman’s actions and affect Surrender date and place Overall # dead Lasting impact of CW Questions from presentations.

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