Presentation on theme: "Summarize the course of the Civil War and its impact on democracy, including the major turning points; the impact of the Emancipation Proclamation;"— Presentation transcript:
Summarize the course of the Civil War and its impact on democracy, including the major turning points; the impact of the Emancipation Proclamation; the unequal Treatment afforded to African American military units; the geographic, economic, and political factors in the defeat of the Confederacy; and the ultimate defeat of the idea of secession.
“A House divided against itself cannot stand.” -- Abraham Lincoln
Indian Territory (CSA) The “Deep South” seceded after Lincoln was elected. Secession The “Upper South” waited… DOCUMENT
Causes of Southern Secession Conflicting views about federal authority and states’ rights Economic and cultural differences between the agricultural South and the industrializing North Debates over the expansion of slavery into the western territories The election of Abraham Lincoln in 1860
Confederate States of America (CSA) First National Flag of the CSA Jefferson Davis, President
War-making Capacity of the North and South
Confederate Advantages More Competent Generals – Southern Military Tradition “Home Field Advantage” DEFENSE as objective – NOT conquest HIGH STAKES – Survival as objective
UNION Advantage C ONFEDERATE Advantage Population Manufacturing Money Defense Military Leadership Political Leadership
The “Anaconda Plan” General Winfield Scott (1860)
Decisive Battles of the Civil War BattleYear Victor Significance UnionConfed. Fort Sumter 1861 X Began the Civil War Antietam (Sharpsburg) 1862 Tactical Draw Union Strategic Bloodiest Single Day of War Emancipation Proclamation Gettysburg (PA) 1863 X Lee’s first tactical defeat Vicksburg (MS) 1863 X Confederates lose control of Mississippi River Appomattox Court House 1865 X Lee surrenders to Grant
Lee and McClellan fought to a tactical draw in the bloodiest single day of the war. Afterwards, Lee retreated to VA. STRATEGIC VICTORY for the Union CASUALTIESUSACSA KILLED2,1081,546 WOUNDED9,5407,752 CAPT/MISS7531,018 TOTAL12,40110,316
The Emancipation Proclamation "That on the first day of January, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-three, all persons held as slaves within any State or designated part of a State, the people whereof shall then be in rebellion against the United States, shall be then, thenceforward, and forever free…. “Now, therefore I, Abraham Lincoln, President of the United States, by virtue of the power in me vested as Commander-in-Chief, of the Army and Navy of the United States in time of actual armed rebellion against the authority and government of the United States, and as a fit and necessary war measure for suppressing said rebellion…” 1/1/1863 DOCUMENT
Areas affected Areas specifically exempted The Emancipation Proclamation
WHY, THEN? 0
Lincoln’s #1 War Aim Preserve the Union – All other goals were secondary – Emancipation a goal IN ADDITION
EngagementStateVictory ChancellorsvilleVAConfederate GettysburgPAUnion VicksburgMSUnion 1863 Decisive Engagements In 1863, Lee won his greatest victory and suffered his greatest defeat.
Conscription aka, “The Draft” Confederate (1862) Union (1863) o Draftees could hire substitutes o Planters* exempt *20 or more slaves o Draftees could hire substitutes o $300 to exempt “Rich man’s war, poor man’s fight.” -- Anti-draft slogan
After his victory at Chancellorsville, Lee invaded Pennsylvania in hopes of gaining a decisive victory on Northern soil. Gettysburg July 1-3, 1863
Gettysburg July 1-3, 1863 CASUALTIESUNIONCONFEDERATE KILLED3,1554,708 WOUNDED14,53112,693 CAPT/MISS5,3695,830 TOTAL23,05523,231 After three days of fighting, Lee failed to defeat the Union Army. LEE’S FIRST TACTICAL DEFEAT
Siege of Vicksburg May 18 – July 4, 1863
A Turning Point... The back-to-back losses at Gettysburg and Vicksburg were severe blows to the Confederacy. What effect did these battles have on the Copperhead movement in the North? The back-to-back losses at Gettysburg and Vicksburg were severe blows to the Confederacy. What effect did these battles have on the Copperhead movement in the North?
The Gettysburg Address November 19, 1863 Fourscore and seven years ago… Of the people, by the people, and for the people… Fourscore and seven years ago… Of the people, by the people, and for the people… RHETORIC
African-Americans About 180,000 African-Americans enlisted in the Union Army in the later years of the war. – 10% of Union Army / 1% of Population ALL VOLUNTEER Only whites were drafted in the North. in the Civil War
54 th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry The film, Glory (1989), is based on the story of the 54 th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry.
The Old Flag Never Touched the Ground, which depicts the 54th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry Regiment at the attack on Fort Wagner, South Carolina, on July 18, 1863.
Election of 1864
Four More Years!
TOTAL WAR After defeating McClellan, Lincoln was no longer bound by political considerations. LincolnGrantSherman
Lee vs. Grant WAR OF ATTRITION Virginia
Gen. William T. Sherman (USA) Sherman’s March
Lincoln’s Second Inaugural Address Compare to First Inaugural Compare to First Inaugural March 4, 1865
Lee Surrenders to Grant Appomattox Court House April 12, 1865