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Presentation on theme: "The Civil War US HISTORY EOC REVIEW."— Presentation transcript:


2 USHC 3.2 Summarize the course of the Civil War and its impact on democracy, including the major turning points; the impact of the Emancipation Proclamation; the unequal Treatment afforded to African American military units; the geographic, economic, and political factors in the defeat of the Confederacy; and the ultimate defeat of the idea of secession.

3 Election of 1860 “A House divided against itself cannot stand.”
-- Abraham Lincoln

4 Secession The “Upper South” waited…
Indian Territory (CSA) The “Deep South” seceded after Lincoln was elected. DOCUMENT

5 Causes of Southern Secession
Conflicting views about federal authority and states’ rights Economic and cultural differences between the agricultural South and the industrializing North Debates over the expansion of slavery into the western territories The election of Abraham Lincoln in 1860

6 Confederate States of America
(CSA) First National Flag of the CSA Jefferson Davis, President

7 War-making Capacity of the North and South

8 Confederate Advantages
More Competent Generals Southern Military Tradition “Home Field Advantage” DEFENSE as objective NOT conquest HIGH STAKES Survival as objective

UNION Advantage CONFEDERATE Advantage Population Manufacturing Money Defense Military Leadership Political Leadership

10 General Winfield Scott
The “Anaconda Plan” 2 Capture Richmond 3 Control the Miss. R. General Winfield Scott (1860) 1 Naval Blockade

11 Decisive Battles of the Civil War
Year Victor Significance Union Confed. Fort Sumter 1861 X Began the Civil War Antietam (Sharpsburg) 1862 Tactical Draw Union Strategic Bloodiest Single Day of War Emancipation Proclamation Gettysburg (PA) 1863 Lee’s first tactical defeat Vicksburg (MS) Confederates lose control of Mississippi River Appomattox Court House 1865 Lee surrenders to Grant

12 STRATEGIC VICTORY for the Union
Antietam September, 1862 Lee and McClellan fought to a tactical draw in the bloodiest single day of the war. Afterwards, Lee retreated to VA. STRATEGIC VICTORY for the Union CASUALTIES USA CSA KILLED 2,108 1,546 WOUNDED 9,540 7,752 CAPT/MISS 753 1,018 TOTAL 12,401 10,316

13 The Emancipation Proclamation
1/1/1863 "That on the first day of January, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-three, all persons held as slaves within any State or designated part of a State, the people whereof shall then be in rebellion against the United States, shall be then, thenceforward, and forever free…. “Now, therefore I, Abraham Lincoln, President of the United States, by virtue of the power in me vested as Commander-in-Chief, of the Army and Navy of the United States in time of actual armed rebellion against the authority and government of the United States, and as a fit and necessary war measure for suppressing said rebellion…” DOCUMENT

14 The Emancipation Proclamation
Areas affected Areas specifically exempted


16 Lincoln’s #1 War Aim Preserve the Union All other goals were secondary
Emancipation a goal IN ADDITION

17 1863 Decisive Engagements Lee Engagement State Victory
Chancellorsville VA Confederate Gettysburg PA Union Vicksburg MS Lee In 1863, Lee won his greatest victory and suffered his greatest defeat.

18 Conscription Confederate Union (1863)
aka, “The Draft” Confederate (1862) Union (1863) Draftees could hire substitutes Planters* exempt *20 or more slaves $300 to exempt “Rich man’s war, poor man’s fight.” -- Anti-draft slogan

19 Gettysburg July 1-3, 1863 After his victory at Chancellorsville, Lee invaded Pennsylvania in hopes of gaining a decisive victory on Northern soil.

20 Gettysburg July 1-3, 1863 After three days of fighting, Lee failed to defeat the Union Army. LEE’S FIRST TACTICAL DEFEAT CASUALTIES UNION CONFEDERATE KILLED 3,155 4,708 WOUNDED 14,531 12,693 CAPT/MISS 5,369 5,830 TOTAL 23,055 23,231

21 Siege of Vicksburg May 18 – July 4, 1863 Grant

22 A Turning Point... The back-to-back losses at Gettysburg and Vicksburg were severe blows to the Confederacy. What effect did these battles have on the Copperhead movement in the North?

23 The Gettysburg Address November 19, 1863
RHETORIC Fourscore and seven years ago… Of the people, by the people, and for the people…

24 African-Americans ALL VOLUNTEER in the Civil War
About 180,000 African-Americans enlisted in the Union Army in the later years of the war. 10% of Union Army / 1% of Population ALL VOLUNTEER Only whites were drafted in the North.


26 54th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry
The film, Glory (1989), is based on the story of the 54th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry.

27 The Old Flag Never Touched the Ground, which depicts the 54th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry Regiment at the attack on Fort Wagner, South Carolina, on July 18, 1863.

28 Election of 1864 1856 1860 1864

29 Four More Years!

30 TOTAL WAR Lincoln Grant Sherman After defeating McClellan, Lincoln was no longer bound by political considerations.

31 Lee vs. Grant Virginia WAR OF ATTRITION

32 Gen. William T. Sherman (USA)
Sherman’s March Gen. William T. Sherman (USA)

33 Sherman’s March

34 Lincoln’s Second Inaugural Address
March 4, 1865 Compare to First Inaugural

35 Appomattox Court House
April 12, 1865 Lee Surrenders to Grant

36 Richmond, 1865



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