2USHC 3.2Summarize the course of the Civil War and its impact on democracy, including the major turning points; the impact of the Emancipation Proclamation; the unequal Treatment afforded to African American military units; the geographic, economic, and political factors in the defeat of the Confederacy; and the ultimate defeat of the idea of secession.
3Election of 1860 “A House divided against itself cannot stand.” -- Abraham Lincoln
4Secession The “Upper South” waited… Indian Territory(CSA)The “Deep South” seceded after Lincoln was elected.DOCUMENT
5Causes of Southern Secession Conflicting views about federal authority and states’ rightsEconomic and cultural differences between the agricultural South and the industrializing NorthDebates over the expansion of slavery into the western territoriesThe election of Abraham Lincoln in 1860
6Confederate States of America (CSA)First National Flag of the CSAJefferson Davis,President
8Confederate Advantages More Competent GeneralsSouthern Military Tradition“Home Field Advantage”DEFENSE as objectiveNOT conquestHIGH STAKESSurvival as objective
9CONFEDERATE Advantage UNION AdvantageCONFEDERATE AdvantagePopulationManufacturingMoneyDefenseMilitary LeadershipPolitical Leadership
10General Winfield Scott The “Anaconda Plan”2Capture Richmond3Control the Miss. R.General Winfield Scott(1860)1Naval Blockade
11Decisive Battles of the Civil War YearVictorSignificanceUnionConfed.Fort Sumter1861XBegan the Civil WarAntietam (Sharpsburg)1862Tactical DrawUnion StrategicBloodiest Single Day of WarEmancipation ProclamationGettysburg (PA)1863Lee’s first tactical defeatVicksburg (MS)Confederates lose control of Mississippi RiverAppomattox Court House1865Lee surrenders to Grant
12STRATEGIC VICTORY for the Union AntietamSeptember, 1862Lee and McClellan fought to a tactical draw in the bloodiest single day of the war.Afterwards, Lee retreated to VA.STRATEGIC VICTORY for the UnionCASUALTIESUSACSAKILLED2,1081,546WOUNDED9,5407,752CAPT/MISS7531,018TOTAL12,40110,316
13The Emancipation Proclamation 1/1/1863"That on the first day of January, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-three, all persons held as slaves within any State or designated part of a State, the people whereof shall then be in rebellion against the United States, shall be then, thenceforward, and forever free…. “Now, therefore I, Abraham Lincoln, President of the United States, by virtue of the power in me vested as Commander-in-Chief, of the Army and Navy of the United States in time of actual armed rebellion against the authority and government of the United States, and as a fit and necessary war measure for suppressing said rebellion…”DOCUMENT
14The Emancipation Proclamation Areas affectedAreas specifically exempted
16Lincoln’s #1 War Aim Preserve the Union All other goals were secondary Emancipation a goal IN ADDITION
171863 Decisive Engagements Lee Engagement State Victory ChancellorsvilleVAConfederateGettysburgPAUnionVicksburgMSLeeIn 1863, Lee won his greatest victory and suffered his greatest defeat.
18Conscription Confederate Union (1863) aka, “The Draft”Confederate(1862)Union (1863)Draftees could hire substitutesPlanters* exempt *20 or more slaves$300 to exempt“Rich man’s war, poor man’s fight.” -- Anti-draft slogan
19GettysburgJuly 1-3, 1863After his victory at Chancellorsville, Lee invaded Pennsylvania in hopes of gaining a decisive victory on Northern soil.
20GettysburgJuly 1-3, 1863After three days of fighting, Lee failed to defeat the Union Army. LEE’S FIRST TACTICAL DEFEATCASUALTIESUNIONCONFEDERATEKILLED3,1554,708WOUNDED14,53112,693CAPT/MISS5,3695,830TOTAL23,05523,231
22A Turning Point...The back-to-back losses at Gettysburg and Vicksburg were severe blows to the Confederacy.What effect did these battles have on the Copperhead movement in the North?
23The Gettysburg Address November 19, 1863 RHETORICFourscore and seven years ago… Of the people, by the people, and for the people…
24African-Americans ALL VOLUNTEER in the Civil War About 180,000 African-Americans enlisted in the Union Army in the later years of the war.10% of Union Army / 1% of PopulationALL VOLUNTEEROnly whites were drafted in the North.