2ObjectivesGain a greater understanding of evaluation and evaluative thinkingLearn about some practical approaches & get familiar with some tools to useHave an opportunity to apply your learning directly to a real world case
3Session Outline Introductions / Intro to the day Grounding definitions & termsUnderstanding “programs” (purpose & logic)Evaluative thinking and the evaluation processStrategies for making evaluation desirable & usableDebrief, questions, & close
4Metaphors: Your Ideas about Evaluation Think of one object that represents your ideas and/or feelings about evaluationPrepare to explain your choiceShare your with the person sitting next to you and notice common themesPrepare to share your common themes with the group.NOTES TO PRESENTER: This exercise is adapted from Preskill and Russ-Eft’s activities book (see reference list). The purpose of the activity is to get participants to think about the ideas they hold (often unconsciously) about evaluation. It is designed to draw them into the conversation about evaluation and to consider the implications their ideas have for the practice of evaluation in their organization. You will need paper and markers for each group and a flipchart/whiteboard/paper for recording the large group discussion. ACTIVITY STEPSGive participants the instructions shown on the slide and distribute paper and markers. Give participants about 3 minutes to draw their images and label them. At the end of 3 minutes, ask them to turn to the person sitting next to them. Each person should explain his/her drawing.Give participants approximately 3-5 minutes for this conversation. Bring the group back together and ask people to comment on themes the pairs noticed and discussed.Keep a running list on flipchart/whiteboard/paper to indicate positive contributions evaluation makes as well as concerns/issues. You can return to these drawings toward the end of the presentation to see if there are things people would add about the positive contributions evaluation can make, to see if they have shifted perspective at all about the concerns, and to ask if there are questions/concerns still lingering.
5E-VALU-ation "Value" is the root word of evaluation Week 1 PP for EdPA 5501/EPsy 5243E-VALU-ation"Value" is the root word of evaluationEvaluation involves making value judgments, according to many in the fieldJ. A. King
6the merit, worth (or value) of an object” Traditional definition: Michael Scriven (from Michael Scriven, 1967, and the earlier Program Evaluation Standards)"The systematic determination ofthe merit, worth (or value)of an object”
7Important concepts in this definition SYSTEMATIC means that evaluators use explicit rules and procedures to make determinationsMERIT is the absolute or intrinsic value of an objectWORTH is the relative or extrinsic value of an object in a given context
8An Alternative Definition: Michael Quinn Patton Systematic collection of information about the activities, characteristics, and results of programs to (1) to make judgments about the program, (2) improve or further develop program effectiveness, (3) inform decisions, and/or (4) increase understanding. Done for and with specific intended primary users for specific, intended uses.
9Commonalities among definitions Evaluation is a systematic processEvaluation involves collecting dataEvaluation is a process for enhancing knowledge and decision makingEvaluation use is implicit or explicitRuss-Eft & Preskill (2009, p. 4)
10Discussion: Why Do Evaluation? What are the things we might gain from engaging in evaluation/an evaluative process?Why is it in our interest to do it?Why is it in the interest of the people we serve to do it?What are the benefits?Put in concrete terms, a victim survivor comes to you and asks why she would seek your services and report being sexually assaulted in your jurisdiction. What compelling information do we have to tell her about our results, what benefits we have realized for other victim survivors?
11From the textbooks… evaluation purposes AccreditationAccountabilityGoal attainmentConsumer protectionNeeds assessmentObject improvementUnderstanding or supportSocial changeDecision making
12One basic distinction… Internal vs. External INTERNAL evaluationConducted by program employeesPlus side: Knowledge of programMinus side: Potential bias and influence
13EXTERNAL evaluation Conducted by outsiders, often for a fee Plus side: Less visible biasMinus side: Outsiders have to gain entrée; have less first-hand knowledge of the program
14Scriven's classic terms FORMATIVE evaluationConducted during the development or delivery of a programFeedback for program improvement
15Scriven's classic terms SUMMATIVE evaluationTypically done at the end of aproject or project periodOften done for other users or for accountability purposesStake: When the cook tastes the soup, that’s formative. When the guests taste the soup, that’s summative.
16A new(er) term from Patton DEVELOPMENTALevaluationHelp develop a program or interventionEvaluators part of the program design teamUse systematically collected data
17What is the evaluation process? Every evaluation shares similar procedures
18Patton’s Basics of Evaluation: What?So what?Now what?
19General Phases of evaluation planning Phase NameQuestionIObject descriptionWhat are we evaluating?IIContext analysisWhy are we doing an evaluation?What do we hope to learn?IIIEvaluation planHow will weconduct the study?We’ve hinted at a process in the last few slides, but to summarize…While no two evaluations are the same, you can expect that your evaluation follows a common process.Set boundaries for the evaluation: An organization must identify the intended audience for an evaluation, describe what is to be evaluated, and determine resources available to support evaluative efforts.Next, an organization will carefully develop the question or questions to be answered by the evaluation.Once questions have been established, an organization will work with an evaluator to plan details that will bring the evaluation to life including:Data collection methods, how the evaluation will be managed (roles and responsibilities, timeline, etc.), data analysis plans, and reporting requirements.Next, the instruments are developed, data is collected, analyzed and interpreted. Finally, recommendations and conclusions are reported to the intended users and these users develop an action plan based on the evaluation.
21“We build the road, and the road builds us.” -Sri Lankan saying A word about logic models and theories of change…one way to understand a program.
22Simplest form of a logic model INPUTSOUTPUTSOUTCOMESin its simplest form, a logic model is a graphic representation that shows the logical relationships between:The resources that go into the program – INPUTSThe activities the program undertakes – OUTPUTSThe changes or benefits that results – OUTCOMESResults-oriented planning
23A bit more detail. . . INPUTS OUTPUTS OUTCOMES SO WHAT? Program investmentsActivitiesPartici-pationShortMediumLong-termWhat we investWhat we doWho we reachWhat results?SO WHAT?What is the VALUE?
26What does a logic model look like? Logic model is graphic displayAny shape is possible but importance lies in showing expected causal connectionsLevel of detail: simple, complexMultiple models – families of models for multi-level programs; multi-component programsReinforce that a logic model needs to be:visually engaging,appropriate in its level of detail,easy to understand,reflective of the context in which the program operates.
27Regardless of format, what do logic models and theories of change have in common? They show activities linked to outcomesThey show relationships/connections that make sense (are logical). Arrows are used to show the connections (the “if-then” relationships)They are (hopefully) understandableThey do not and cannot explain everything about a program!Doesn’t matter if it is a flow chart with boxes or arrows or a table
29The Case: Logic and/or Theory Draw a Picture…Inputs (what goes in to the program to make it possible?)Outputs (Activities: what do they do? Participation: counts)Outcomes (what do they think will happen?)Short, medium, and long term
30What can we evaluate? Context Input(s) Process(es) Product(s) Daniel Stufflebeam
31The basic inquiry tasks (BIT) Framing questionsDetermining an appropriate designIdentifying a sampleCollecting dataAnalyzing data and presenting resultsInterpreting results“Reporting”
32Back to the Case: What are our questions? Evaluation Question#1#2#3
33Back to the Case: What do we need to know, and where can we find it? Evaluation QuestionInformation NeededInformation Source#1#2#3
34Possible ways to collect data Quantitative:SurveysParticipant AssessmentsCost-benefit AnalysisStatistical Analysis of existing program dataSome kinds of record and document reviewQualitative:Focus GroupsInterviewsObservationsAppreciative inquirySome kinds of record and document reviewTO AUDIENCE:There are many ways in which you might collect data as part of the evaluation. The data collection methods you choose must align with your information needs.Once you know the kinds of information you need to answer your evaluation questions, you can then explore appropriate data collection methods that align with your budget and available expertise and resources.You may realize that your organization lacks the expertise or resources to collect and analyze the necessary data. In this case, you will need to explore opportunities to hire an outside evaluator. Provided in this packet is a How-to Checklist for deciding when and how to hire an external evaluator.
35What are the best methods for your evaluation? It all goes back to your question(s)…Some data collection methods are better than others at answering your questionsSome tools are more appropriate for the audience you need to collect information from or report findings toEach method of collecting data has its advantages and disadvantages (e.g., cost, availability of information, expertise required)TO AUDIENCE:For instance, if your evaluation plan focuses on providing accountability data to a funder regarding the number of participants served and the frequency of service to participants, it doesn't make sense to conduct in-depth interviews and develop detailed case studies of those served by the program. Instead, you are likely to use surveys or some sort of document review that examines participants at the time of service and frequency of service...something that tracks people in a numerical way.However, if you are interested in knowing more about ways in which your program is failing to meet participant needs, you need to gather evidence of the actual experiences of your participants. In this case, you would need to rely on focus groups, interviews or possibly surveys to learn more about their needs and the perceived gaps in your service.NOTE TO PRESENTER: Additional examples are provided so that you may pick examples that are appropriate for your audience. You do not need to use them all…select those that make the most sense for your audience!More examples:Case studies are best for answering the hows and whys of a program. They often describe something in depth.Similarly, cost benefit or cost effectiveness analysis is best used when you want to determine whether benefits or usefulness of a program exceed the costs associated with running it.You can find out more about what data collection methods are appropriate for your needs by reviewing almost any of the resources found on our Further Reading list included in your packet.
36Back to the Case: How will we find out? Evaluation QuestionInformation NeededInformation SourceMethods#1#2#3